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11-13-08 - adipose tissue What cofactor would you use What...

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Lipid Biosynthesis Reversing fatty acid catabolism. What steps are different?
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Starts with malonyl-CoA instead of acetyl-CoA
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Cost = (n-2)ATP + 2(n-2)NADPH
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Fatty Acid Synthase Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase Malonyl-CoA-ACP transferase Ketoacyl-ACP reductase Hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase Enoyl-ACP reductase Acetyl-CoA-ACP transacetylase ACP = acyl carrier protein
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An example of polyketide biosynthesis: the synthesis of erythromycin A.
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Fatty acid biosynthesis occurs in cytosol Acetyl-CoA is made in the mitochondrion
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Fatty acid desaturases are oxidases
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Fe 2+ O Fe 2+ O O Fe 3+ O Fe 3+ O - O - + H + Fe 3+ O Fe 3+ O - OH H A Fe 4+ O Fe 4+ O 2- H H H H To carboxylate Fe 3+ O Fe 4+ O - H H H H Fe 3+ O Fe 3+ O - H H 2 e - Fe 2+ O Fe 2+
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Much of the fatty acids release by adipocytes is taken up by tissues and coverted to energy. This is triggered by low glucose by glucagon or epinephrine Much is reconverted into triacylglycerol by the liver and released
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Unformatted text preview: adipose tissue What cofactor would you use? What cofactor? Desaturase In plants and yeast there is hydroxylation instead of desaturation Fe 2+ O Fe 2+ O O Fe 3+ O Fe 3+ O-O-+ H + Fe 3+ O Fe 3+ O-OH H A Fe 4+ O Fe 4+ O 2-H H H H To carboxylate Fe 3+ O Fe 4+ O-H H H H Fe 3+ O Fe 3+ 2 e-Fe 2+ O Fe 2+ HO H H H Heme generated tyrosine radical abstracts this proton COO-COO-O H H O H COO-O O COO-O O COO-O O O O COO-O O O O O H Fe 3+ COO-O O O O COO-O O O OH H A COO-O O OH Fe 5+-HO H + + 2 e-Fe 3+ OH 2 O H Fe 4+-HO O Fe 3+ OH 2 How is the radical generated in the first place? Fe 3+-HO H H H Fe 2+ OH 2 H O O H O O Fe 2+ HO H H O OH Fe 3+-HO Flavin monooxygenase O H A HO H B H H HO Methyl and hydride transfera H HO HO HO CH 2 HO CH 2 HO OH OH Dihydrocholesterol 1 α 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol Cholecalciferol Vitamin D 3...
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