NutritionalRequirements

NutritionalRequirements - Nutritional Requirements for...

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Nutritional Requirements for Amino Acids, Dynamics of Nitrogen Utilization and Disposal DEN 5121 Charles M. Allen Office: R3-226B Phone: 392-3366 email: callen@biochem.med.ufl.edu
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Sources and Uses of Amino Acids Sources Proteins in the diet provide both essential and non-essential amino acids in contrast to microorganisms, which for the most part synthesize their own. Turnover of endogenous proteins De novo biosynthesis (non-essential amino acids)
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Uses Protein synthesis Nitrogen and carbon source of general and special product biosynthesis Energy source a. glucogenic (those that can be used for the synthesis of glucose) b. ketogenic (those whose metabolism leads to ketone bodies) Amino acid requirements increase in patients recovering from surgery.
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Dietary Protein Blood Amino Acids Intracellular Amino Acid Pool Intracellular Amino Acid Pool Nonessential Amino Acids Nutritionally Derivatives Nonprotein Carbon Skeletons Energy Ketone bodies Glucose Urea NH 3
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Glucogenic Amino Acid Metabolism Remember that TCA cycle intermediates are precursors for gluconeogenesis .
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Ketogenic Amino Acid Metabolism
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OVERVIEW OF NITROGEN METABOLISM A. Nutritional (Dietary) Requirements for Amino Acids B. Management of Metabolic Nitrogen and the Urea Cycle C. Selected Aspects of Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolism
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A. Nutritional (Dietary) Requirements for Amino Acids Daily adult intake of 0.8 g/kg (2.5 oz of meat/day). Intake is higher for a child and pregnant woman. Essential amino acids Leu Trp Lys Met Ile Phe His* Thr Val Arg* Animal proteins are often low in certain important amino acids (e.g. Met and Lys) Some vegetables are low in other amino acids (e.g. legumes low in Met, grains low in Lys, corn in Try and Lys).
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B. Management of Metabolic Nitrogen and the Urea Cycle 1. Transamination (transaminases = aminotransferases) 2. Deamination (glutamate dehydrogenase, glutaminase) 3. Ammonia Assimilation a. Glutamate dehydrogenate b. Glutamine synthetase c. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I 4. Urea Cycle
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1. Transamination Glutamate pyruvate transaminase - Clinically this is referred to as SGPT ( or ALT) because it is most often assayed in blood serum. Glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (SGOT or AST). + O O CH 3 + 3 HN alanine + CH 3 O O O NH 3 + O O O O O O O O O alpha- ketoglutarate pyruvate glutamate + O O O O + 3 HN aspartate + O O O O O NH 3 + O O O O O O O O O alpha- ketoglutarate oxaloacetate glutamate
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A required cofactor for the transaminases, pyridoxal phosphate, serves to facilitate amino group transfer. It is a derivative of the vitamin, B 6 . Most tissues have transaminases.
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NutritionalRequirements - Nutritional Requirements for...

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