final study guide

final study guide - Will Cliff 6/1/10 Philosphy 8...

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Will Cliff 6/1/10 Philosphy 8 Philosophy 8 Final Study Guide Thomas Kuhn What is a “paradigm”? o A package of claims about the world, methods of gathering and analyzing data, and habits of scientific thought and action. o A way of looking at the world through which one can form an opinion. o Broad sense: a package of ideas and methods, which when combined, make up both a view of the world and a way of doing science. o Narrow sense: achievement is a source of inspiration to others; it suggests a way to investigate the world. In other words, an experiment that changes peoples opinions, paradigm shifting, can itself be considered a paradigm in the narrow sense. What are the stages that a scientific paradigm goes through, and what features characterize each stage: o Pre-science: The period before normal science when there is no normal paradigm (dominant paradigm) o Normal Science: Majority of scientists of workers are working within a certain paradigm, which therefore is the dominant paradigm. Everyone is working in support of this paradigm and it is generally not questioned—an idea that is very anti-popper. Debate about fundamentals is “closed-off” as everyone is looking to make the paradigm more precise in an act to puzzle solve. o Crisis: A growing mass of anomalies—puzzles that haven’t been solved yet—arises which leads a paradigm to crisis. These anomalies previously weren’t problems as they were issiues that could be solved later, but as time went on and they weren’t solved, they became massive issues. This causes researchers to examine the existing fundamentals of the dominant paradigm and start challenging them. o Scientific Revolution: When a group of these anomalies haven’t been solved (only one is insufficient to cause a scientific revolution) and a new paradigm appears as new possibility for scientific attention, then a scientific revolution takes place as one dominant paradigm is replaced with another. What is relativism? Why does it look like Kuhn might be a relativist?
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o Relativism: the truth depends upon your point of view or your beliefs. o It looks as though Kuhn could be a relativist because he believed that different paradigms are incommensurable. Meaning that different paradigms cannot be compared because the people of one paradigm believe in the ideologies and terminology of within their paradigm. Any statement outside of that paradigm, using different terminology would not make sense to a person in that particular paradigm. So therefore, within a person’s paradigm, their beliefs make sense to them and make sense within the bounds of that paradigm— making it the truth as far as they are concerned. o
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final study guide - Will Cliff 6/1/10 Philosphy 8...

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