1.6.10 LEC

1.6.10 LEC - What is Psychology? Psychology The scientific...

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Unformatted text preview: What is Psychology? Psychology The scientific study of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (inner thoughts and feelings) Neuroscience Developmental Cognitive Social Clinical I s Psychology necessary? Humans tend to be overconfident I s Boston north or south of Paris? People tend to be more confident than correct Hindsight Bias The I -knew-it-all-along phenomenon I f you want to teach a habit that persists, reward the desired behavior ever time, not just intermittently Most abused children do not become abusive adults The brain remains active during sleep Fear of harmless objects, such as flowers, are as easy to acquire as fears of potentially dangerous objects, such as snakes Modules 3 Psychological approaches Statistics Experiments You=genetics x experience Nature-nurture Debate No longer exists This is an antiquated approach to neuroscience, psychology and behavior All behaviors and phenotypes (observable traits) are a product of both genetics (nature) and experience/environment (nurture) Behavior Genetics Field used to explain and predict individual differences Genes: Our codes for life Genes live on chromosomes, which are found in every human cell Chromosomes Humans have 46 chromosomes 23 from mother and 23 from father Genes Small segments of DNA Humans have ~30,000 genes Genes can either be active (expressed) or inactive Genome The set of complete instructions for making an organism, containing all the genes in that organism. Thus, the human genome makes us human and the genome for drosophila makes it a common house fly. Our genome is very similar to other primates Humans share ~96% genome with chimpanzees The small genetic differences lead to large functional differences (e.g. language) Twin Studies Some researchers think its a good way to tease apart the influences of environment and heredity I dentical twins share the exact same genetic makeup Twin Studies Twin Studies However, keep in mind that identical twins are also treated differently by the environment (e.g. other people) than fraternal twins or other siblings Thus, they not only share the same genes, but probably have a more similar environment than fraternal twins Adoption Studies (Separated Twins) Same genes, different environment Provides opportunity to examine the effects of environment on outcome Adoption Studies (Separated Twins) However, some of the anecdotal evidence of similarity in twins reared apart could just be coincidence Also, adoption agencies tend to place separated twins in similar homes Adoptive studies strongly point to the simple fact that biologically related children turn out to be different in a family. So investigators ask: Do siblings have differing experiences?...
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2011 for the course PSYCH 10 taught by Professor Zaidel during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.

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1.6.10 LEC - What is Psychology? Psychology The scientific...

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