10 LEC notes

10 LEC notes - W ill Cliff Notes 1/11/10 The Brain:...

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Will Cliff Notes 1/11/10 The Brain: everything psychological is biological 1. Understanding the brain is not for the purposes of phrenology a. Phrenology: brain functions defined by bumps on the skull b. Not just where do things happen in the brain; but how do they happen in the brain. c. Dopamine is responsive to reward 2. The body’s info system is built from billions of interconnected cells called neurons. a. Axons talk b. Dendrites listen 3. Neurobiologists and other investigators understand that humans and animals operate similarly when processing info. 4. Parts of a neuron a. Cell body: life support center of the neuron. b. Dendrites: Branching extensions at the cell body. Receive messages from other neurons. c. Axon: Long single extension of a neuron, covered with myelin [MY-uh-lin] sheath to insulate and speed up messages through neurons. d. Terminal Branches of axon: Branched endings of an axon that transmit messages to other neurons. 5. How do neurons transmit messages? a. If internal state of axon is at rest it is negative. b. Positive ions flow into the ion then the action potential occurs. c. Sodium/potassium pump pumps these positive ions back out d. Channels next door then open and the AP continues 6. Neuron is constantly receiving different types of information a. Excitatory means it will occur. b. Inhibitory means it will not occur 7. All or none response:
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a. A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it doesn’t affect the action potentials strength or speed. 8. Synapse is a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft. 9. Receptors
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10 LEC notes - W ill Cliff Notes 1/11/10 The Brain:...

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