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8-30-1 A Brief Historical Outline

8-30-1 A Brief Historical Outline - 1902 Oliver Heaviside...

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A Brief Historical Outline on the discovery of Atmospheric Structure 1593 Galileo invents thermometer 1643 Evangelista Torricelli invents barometer 1648 Florin Périer (with Blaise Pascal's instruction) demonstrates pressure decreases with altitude 1714 Gabriel Fahrenheit introduces temperature scale 1749 Alexander Wilson uses thermometers on a kite 1804 manned balloon exploration by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac 1840's Laws of thermodynamics take shape 1850's James Espy empirically estimates dry and saturated lapse rates 1862 William Thomson theoretically derives these lapse rates 1866 James Maxwell develops kinetic theory of gases (suggested by Daniel Bernoulli in 1738) 1868 G. J. Storey proposes idea of an exosphere 1882 Balfour Stewart suggests electrical currents exist in upper atmosphere 1894 self-recording thermometer developed 1898 Léon-Philippe Teisserence de Bort begins use of instrumented balloons 1901 Teisserence de Bort discovers isothermal layer about 8 miles up 1901 Guglielmo Marconi receives trans-Atlantic radio signal
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Unformatted text preview: 1902 Oliver Heaviside and Arthur Kennelly separately predict existence of ionosphere 1908 Teisserence de Bort coins words "troposphere" & "stratosphere" 1915 " zones of silence " imply temperature inversion exists above troposphere 1920 Gordon Dobson infers temperature inversion from observed altitude of meteors 1924 Edward Appleton develops ionosonde; confirms existence of ionosphere 1925 Robert Watson-Watt coins word "ionosphere" 1929 Robert Godddard conducts first rocket probe of atmosphere 1930 Sydney Chapman and Vincent Ferraro propose existence of magnetosphere 1948 Rocket probes of upper atmosphere begun 1957 Sputnik I launched, first satellite to orbit the Earth 1958 Explorer 1 discovers Van Allen "radiation" belts 1959 Thomas Gold coins word "magnetosphere" 1959 W. G. Stroud et al. discover very cold summer mesopause 1961 Explorer 12 detects magnetopause 1963 Donald Carpenter discovers plasmapause...
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