Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Chapter5EukaryoticMicroorganisms Eukaryotes

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Chapter 5 Eukaryotic Microorganisms –Eukaryotes •Have a membrane surrounding DNA-nucleus •Have internal membrane bound organelles •Larger than prokaryotes: 10-100 µm in diameter •More complex structures than prokaryotes •Comprised of algae, protozoa, fungi, animals and plants *History of Eukaryotes [Endosymbiotic theory] • Eukaryotic cell evolved from an association between -Large anaerobic prokaryotic  -Oxygen requiring heterotroph (mitochondria) -Photosynthetic prokaryotic (cyanobacteria) •At the beginning, they were undigested pray or internal parasites •Retained portion of DNA ribosomes (70S) and cytoplasmic membranes *External Structures of Eukaryotic Cells •Flagella and cilia- projections used for cellular locomotion –Flagella -Few and long  -Filaments anchored to cell by basal body; no hook -May be single or multiple; generally found at one pole of cell -Do not rotate, but undulate rhythmically –Cilia  -Shorter and more numerous than flagella -Coordinated beating propels cells through their environment -Also used to move substances past the surface of the cell *Internal structure of a flagellum or cilium •Cytoplasm containing microtubules •Nine pairs of microtubules arranged in a ring (2x9 + 2) •Microtubules composed of tubulin •Surrounded by the plasma membrane –Pattern of flagella movement
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•Prokaryotic flagella- rotation •Eukaryotic flagella- wavelike motion –Cell wall (various polysaccharides) •Algae- cellulose, silicate, agar-in red algae •Fungi- chitin (insects) •Yeast- glucan and mannan •Protozoa-don’t have a typical cell wall Flexible outer covering-pellicle (not a true cell wall)
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Chapter 5 - Chapter5EukaryoticMicroorganisms Eukaryotes

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