Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - MCB 2000 Exam 2 Notes Chapter9Genetics...

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MCB 2000 - Exam 2 Notes Chapter 9 Genetics Microbial Genetics 0 -The science of heredity 1 -Levels of genetic research 2      Organismal  3      Cell 4      Chromosome  5      Molecular  6 Can be found: 0 Genetic information is contained within genetic material - DNA and RNA 1 Prokaryotic Organisms (chromosomes, plasmids) 2 Eukaryotic Organisms (chromosome, mitochondria, chloroplasts, plasmids) 3 Chromosomes- cellular structure- packaged DNA molecule Genes- a segment of DNA that code for functional product (protein) Genotype- The sum of all genes- genetic make up Phenotype- Manifestation of genotype 1     0 E. Coli 4,288 genes 1 Human cell: 30,000 - 40,000 2 Size of the cell of E. coli (1 um - diameter) 3 Size of stretched out DNA - 1mm (1000 times longer than size of cell) 4 DNA molecule is tightly packed in the form of chromosome 2 Structure of DNA 0 DNA Molecule - double helix 1 Composed of nucleotides 0 Nucleotides are composed of 0 •Bases 0 –Purine (adenine, guanine) 1 –Pyrimidine (cytosine, thymine) 1 •Deoxyribose sugar 2 •Phosphate group 1 Single strands of DNA have opposite orientation (3’ and 5’)
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MCB 2000 - Exam 2 Notes G–C held together with 3 hydrogens A–T held together with two hydrogens DNA Replication - Overall Process 2 -Double helix unwinds - unzipping hydrogen bonds 3 -Bases of single stranded DNA exposed 4 -Replication fork is formed 5 -Synthesis of the new strand by attachment of complementary nucleotides 6 Enzymes involved in DNA Replication 0 Helicase - untwists the DNA helix by breaking the H bonds 1 Primase - synthesis of RNA primer 2 DNA polymerase III - adding bases to the new DNA 3 Ligase - joining of the DNA fragments 4 Gyrase - super coiling ** H ot  P otatoes  D ance  L ightly on the  G round 7 Details of Replication     0 -Short RNA primer attaches to the origin of replication 1 -Complementary nucleotides attach themselves to the exposed bases (A–T, 
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Chapter 9 - MCB 2000 Exam 2 Notes Chapter9Genetics...

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