Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Chapter10 GeneticEngineering

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Chapter 10 Genetic Engineering •Biotechnology - application of biological (microorganisms) to obtain a product  (food, antibiotics, vitamins, etc.) •Recombinant DNA Technology - procedures by which a fragment of DNA of one  organism is incorporated into the genome of a different organism Goals of genetic engineering -Eliminate undesirable phenotypic traits in humans, animals, plants and microbes  (suppression of ripening in tomatoes) -Create organisms that synthesize products humans need (insulin) Recombinant DNA technology 0 •Selected gene is removed from the genetic donor 1 •This gene is incorporated into a vector (plasmid or virus) 0 -Vectors     : are DNA molecules into which a segment of foreign DNA  can be incorporated (plasmids, transposons, and viruses) 1 -Vector’s characteristics 0 -Self-replicating 1 -Circular shape 2 -Proper size - to be able to accept foreign DNA 3 -Must have a promoter 4 -Must have a gene for antibacterial resistance 2 •The vector is inserted into the cloning host (bacteria, yeast) Inserting Foreign DNA into cells Transformation -A cell takes up plasmid from the surrounding environment -Cells have to be made competent- by soaking them in calcium  chloride 0 Screening of Bacteria that Contain Foreign DNA 0 The vector (plasmid) contains the gene for ampicilin resistance 1 Just those cells that have been transformed can grow on medium 
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containing ampicilin Synthetic DNA 1 DNA synthesis machine 2 Short fragments of DNA (120 nucleotides) can be synthesized 3 We must know the sequence of the DNA fragment that we want to  synthesize 3 4 Applications of recombinant DNA technology 0 Pharmaceutical & Therapeutic  0 -Protein synthesis 1 -Vaccines, DNA vaccines 2 -Genetic screening 3 -DNA fingerprinting
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This note was uploaded on 09/16/2011 for the course MCB 2000 taught by Professor Gantar during the Fall '08 term at FIU.

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Chapter 10 - Chapter10 GeneticEngineering

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