INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATIONPREPARED BY:REEMA GUPTAIX B ROLL NO. 28
INTRODUCTIONThe Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (mature period 2600–1900 BCE) which centered mostly in the western part of the Indian Subcontinent or South Asia and flourished around the Indus river basin. Historically part of Ancient India, it is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. Primarily centered along the Indus and the Punjab region, the civilization extended into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, encompassing most of what is now Pakistan, as well as extending into the westernmost states of India, southeastern Afghanistan and the easternmost part of Baluchistan, Iran.
DISCOVERY AND EXCAVATIONIn 1856, British engineers John and William Brunton were laying theEast Indian Railway Company line connecting the cities of Karachi and Lahore. In 1872–75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters).It was half a century later, in 1912, that more Harappan seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22 and resulting in the discovery of the hitherto unknown civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall. By 1931, much of Mohenjo-Daro had been excavated, but excavations continued, such as that led by Sir Mortimer Wheeler, director of the Archaeological Survey of Indiain 1944. Among other archaeologists who worked on IVC sites before the partition of the subcontinent in 1947 wereAhmad Hasan Dani, Brij Basi Lal, Nani Gopal Majumdar, and Sir MarcAurel Stein.