PART I METHODS AND MANIPULATION IN this part of the book, a brief account is given of the chief manipulative processes which are used in practical organic chemistry. Most of these processes are those which students are likely to use repeatedly in their work. The remainder are not of such frequent occurrence, but are processes with which more advanced students should be familiar: the discussion of the latter processes is given in small print. It should be emphasised that all the processes here described are considered essentially from the practical standpoint. The student should always acquaint himself with the theoretical basis of these operations, for which he should consult any standard text-book of physical chemistry: this applies particularly to such processes as the distillation of constant boiling-point mixtures, steam-distillation, ether extraction, etc . The experimental operations in organic chemistry which occur with greatest frequency are those which are concerned, directly
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