I 7 Q PRACTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY allow filtration through a preheated funnel without premature crystallisation). m-Nitroaniline is thus obtained as bright yellow crystals, m.p. 114°. If an impure and discoloured sample of m-dinitrobenzene is used in the above preparation, add some animal charcoal to the solution immediately prior to the 20 minutes' boiling: the use of charcoal is to be avoided when possible, however, as it is liable to absorb an appreciable quantity of the w-nitroanilinc. For reactions of w-nitroaniline, see p. 387. The Nitration of Phenol. One of the characteristic properties of phenol is the ease with which it gives substitution products, this property being particularly well shown by the ready nitration, sulphonation and bromination which the benzene ring in the phenol molecule undergoes. If phenol is treated even with dilute nitric acid at room temperature, nitration readily occurs with the simultaneous formation of the yellow o-nitro-phenol and the white />-nitrophenol. These compounds can be readily
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