Geology 111 - Geology 111 Notes Science- A body of...

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Geology 111 Notes Science- A body of knowledge about the natural world. Observations Explanations Geology- A science or a study of the earth, or the solid body of earth. Scientific Method- Basic way scientists proceed in researching science. Make observations o Experiments Formulate hypothesis Make prediction (based on hypothesis o Ask questions Check prediction o New Data Modify hypothesis Peer Review Scientific Theory- An explanation about a certain theory. A scientific theory also covers the whole picture of that certain area of science. Usually has been the best and most used theory in that area of science. Theories can be changed to include any new observations that don’t mesh with the initial theory. Structure of the Earth Earth’s average radius is 6370 km. Inner Core Outer Core Lower Mantle Upper Mantle Crust l--1210 km--l---2220 km----l---------------- 2400 km ---------------------l The earth is layered due to density Crust Continental Crust (Thicker, 30 km, Max 70 km) Oceanic Crust (Thinner 8 km) o Continental rocks are less dense and would weigh less than Oceanic rocks. Mantle- Lg. volume layer Rocky, solid, rocks are more dense than the rocks of the crust.
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Core- Very dense , made up of metal, mostly iron but with nickel also present as well as other various metals. Outer Core o Liquid Inner Core o Solid Seismic Waves (earthquakes) Waves vary in speed based on the density of the material they are passing. Composition of the Core? o Average density of the Earth 5.5 g/cm 3 = Mass/Volume Meteorites- Most meteorites are made of iron and nickel. Formation of the Solar System: Nebula Hypothesis Nebula is made up of gas (hydrogen mostly, as well as some helium) and dust. Young stars are always within a nebula Nebula Hypothesis- Somewhere within a nebula something causes the dust and gas to contract on each other and create a star. Nuclear Fusion Hydrogen Fusion begins o 4 atoms bind/fuse 4 H He + Lots of energy. Since Helium weighs less than 4 H the excess weight is attributed to the extra energy that is created due to the fusion. o E=mc 2 E= Energy M= Mass C= Speed of light o 4.6 billion years ago the sun was formed due this type of fusion. Only 8 elements make up 98.5% of the earth. Iron (Fe) 34.6% Oxygen (O) 29.5% Silicon (Si) 15.2% Magnesium (Mg) 12.7% Nickel (Ni) 2.4% Sulfur (S) 1.9% Carbon (Ca) 1.1%
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Aluminum (Al) 1.1% When the sun dies it is because Hydrogen Fusion stops due to the lack of hydrogen. The sun will begin again after a period of inactivity and will get bigger. It would be so big it would engulf Mercury and Venus, and possibly even Earth. What comes out of a volcano?
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2011 for the course GLG 101 taught by Professor Holm during the Fall '09 term at Miami University.

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Geology 111 - Geology 111 Notes Science- A body of...

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