Twelfth Night (Cliffs Complete) - CLIFFSCOMPLETE Shakespeare\u2019s Twelfth Night Edited by Sidney Lamb Associate Professor of English Sir George

Twelfth Night (Cliffs Complete) - CLIFFSCOMPLETE...

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Unformatted text preview: CLIFFSCOMPLETE Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night Edited by Sidney Lamb Associate Professor of English Sir George Williams University, Montreal Complete Text + Commentary + Glossary Commentary by Chris Stroffolino and David Rosenthal IDG Books Worldwide, Inc. An International Data Group Company Foster City, CA • Chicago, IL • Indianapolis, IN • New York, NY CLIFFSCOMPLETE Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night About the Author Chris Stroffolino received his Ph.D. in Shakespearean studies from SUNY Albany and has published five books of poetry, one book of literary criticism, and is currently finishing his book on Shakespeare called Making Fun of Tragedy. He lives in New York City and plays keyboard with the rock band, Volumen. David Rosenthal received his MFA in Dramatic Writing at the Tisch School of the Arts at New York University. His plays have been performed in New York, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Philadelphia. CliffsComplete Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night Published by IDG Books Worldwide, Inc. An International Data Group Company 919 E. Hillsdale Blvd. Suite 400 Foster City, CA 94404 (IDG Books Worldwide Web site) (CliffsNotes Web site) Publisher’s Acknowledgments Editorial Project Editor: Michael Kelly Acquisitions Editor: Gregory W. Tubach Editorial Director: Kristin Cocks Illustrator: DD Dowden Production Indexer: Sherry Massey Proofreader: Vickie Broyles IDG Books Indianapolis Production Department Note: If you purchased this book without a cover you should be aware that this book is stolen property. It was reported as "unsold and destroyed" to the publisher, and neither the author nor the publisher has received any payment for this "stripped book." Copyright © 2000 IDG Books Worldwide, Inc. All rights reserved. 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CLIFFSCOMPLETE Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night CONTENTS AT A GLANCE Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ACT I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 ACT II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 ACT III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 ACT IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 ACT V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 CliffsComplete Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 CliffsComplete Resource Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 CliffsComplete Reading Group Discussion Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 CLIFFSCOMPLETE Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction: Twelfth Night . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction to William Shakespeare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction to Early Modern England . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Introduction to Twelfth Night . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Character Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 ACT I SCENE 1 SCENE 2 SCENE 3 SCENE 4 SCENE 5 A room in the Duke’s palace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 The sea-coast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 A room in Olivia’s house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 The Duke’s palace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Olivia’s house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 ACT II SCENE 1 SCENE 2 SCENE 3 SCENE 4 SCENE 5 The sea-coast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 A street. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Olivia’s house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 The Duke’s palace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Olivia’s garden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 ACT III SCENE 1 SCENE 2 SCENE 3 SCENE 4 Olivia’s garden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 A room in Olivia’s house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 A street. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Olivia’s garden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 ACT IV SCENE 1 SCENE 2 SCENE 3 The street before Olivia’s house. . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 A room in Olivia’s house. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Olivia’s garden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 ACT V SCENE 1 The street before Olivia’s house. . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 viii CliffsComplete Twelfth Night CliffsComplete Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 CliffsComplete Resource Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 CliffsComplete Reading Group Discussion Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Shakespeare’s TWELFTH NIGHT INTRODUCTION TO WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE William Shakespeare, or the “Bard” as people fondly call him, permeates almost all aspects of our society. He can be found in our classrooms, on our televisions, in our theatres, and in our cinemas. Speaking to us through his plays, Shakespeare comments on his life and culture, as well as our own. Actors still regularly perform his plays on the modern stage and screen. The 1990s, for example, saw the release of cinematic versions of Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Othello, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and many more of his works. Anti-Stratfordians — modern scholars who question the authorship of Shakespeare’s plays — have used this lack of information to argue that William Shakespeare either never existed or, if he did exist, did not write any of the plays we attribute to him. They believe that another historical figure, such as Francis Bacon or Queen Elizabeth I, used the name as a cover. Whether or not a man named William Shakespeare ever actually existed is ultimately secondary to the recognition that the group of plays bound together by that name does exist and continues to educate, enlighten, and entertain us. In addition to the popularity of Shakespeare’s plays as he wrote them, other writers have modernized his works to attract new audiences. For example, West Side Story places Romeo and Juliet in New York City, and A Thousand Acres sets King Lear in Iowa corn country. Beyond adaptations and productions, his life and works have captured our cultural imagination. The twentieth century witnessed the production of a play about two minor characters from Shakespeare’s Hamlet in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead and a fictional movie about Shakespeare’s early life and poetic inspiration in Shakespeare in Love. Despite his monumental presence in our culture, Shakespeare remains enigmatic. He does not tell us which plays he wrote alone, on which plays he collaborated with other playwrights, or which versions of his plays to read and perform. Furthermore, with only a handful of documents available about his life, he does not tell us much about Shakespeare the person, forcing critics and scholars to look to historical references to uncover the true-life great dramatist. An engraved portrait of Shakespeare by an unknown artist, ca. 1607. Culver Pictures, Inc./SuperStock 2 CliffsComplete Twelfth Night Family life Though scholars are unsure of the exact date of Shakespeare’s birth, records indicate that his parents — Mary and John Shakespeare — baptized him on April 26, 1564, in the small provincial town of Stratford-upon-Avon — so named because it sat on the banks of the Avon river. Because common practice was to baptize infants a few days after they were born, scholars generally recognize April 23, 1564, as Shakespeare’s birthday. Coincidentally, April 23 is the day of St. George, the patron saint of England, as well as the day upon which Shakespeare would die 52 years later. William was the third of Mary and John’s eight children and the first of four sons. The house in which scholars believe Shakespeare to have been born stands on Henley Street, and despite many modifications over the years, you can still visit it today. Shakespeare’s father Prior to Shakespeare’s birth, John Shakespeare lived in Snitterfield, where he married Mary Arden, the daughter of his landlord. After moving to Stratford in 1552, he worked as a glover, a moneylender, and a dealer in agricultural products such as wool and grain. He also pursued public office and achieved a variety of posts including bailiff, Stratford’s highest elected position — equivalent to a small town’s mayor. At the height of his career, sometime near 1576, he petitioned the Herald’s Office for a coat of arms and thus the right to be a gentleman. But the rise from the middle class to the gentry did not come right away, and the costly petition expired without being granted. About this time, John Shakespeare mysteriously fell into financial difficulty. He became involved in serious litigation, was assessed heavy fines, and even lost his seat on the town council. Some scholars suggest that this decline could have resulted from religious discrimination because the Shakespeare family may have supported Catholicism, the practice of which was illegal in England. However, other scholars point out that not all religious dissenters (both Catholics and radical Puritans) lost their posts due to their religion. Whatever the cause of his decline, John did regain some prosperity toward the end of his life. In 1596, the Herald’s Office granted the Shakespeare family a coat of arms at the petition of William, by now a successful playwright in London. And John, prior to his death in 1601, regained his seat on Stratford’s town council. Childhood and education Our understanding of William Shakespeare’s childhood in Stratford is primarily speculative because children do not often appear in the legal records from which many scholars attempt to reconstruct Shakespeare’s life. Based on his father’s local prominence, scholars speculate that Shakespeare most likely attended King’s New School, a school that usually employed Oxford graduates and was generally well respected. Shakespeare would have started petty school — the rough equivalent to modern preschool — at the age of four or five. He would have learned to read on a hornbook, which was a sheet of parchment or paper on which the alphabet and the Lord’s Prayer were written. This sheet was framed in wood and covered with a transparent piece of horn for durability. After two years in petty school, he would have transferred to grammar school, where his school day would have probably lasted from 6 or 7 o’clock in the morning (depending on the time of year) until 5 o’clock in the evening, with only a handful of holidays. While in grammar school, Shakespeare would primarily have studied Latin, reciting and reading the works of classical Roman authors such as Plautus, Ovid, Seneca, and Horace. Traces of these authors’ works can be seen in his dramatic texts. Toward his last years in grammar school, Shakespeare would have acquired some basic skills in Greek as well. Thus the remark made by Ben Jonson, Shakespeare’s well-educated friend and contemporary playwright, that Shakespeare knew “small Latin and less Greek” is accurate. Jonson is not saying that Introduction to William Shakespeare 3 For seven years after the twins’ baptism, the records remain silent on Shakespeare. At some point, he traveled to London and became involved with the theatre, but he could have been anywhere between 21 and 28 years old when he did. Though some have suggested that he may have served as an assistant to a schoolmaster at a provincial school, it seems likely that he went to London to become an actor, gradually becoming a playwright and gaining attention. Shakespeare’s birthplace. SuperStock The plays: On stage and in print when Shakespeare left grammar school he was only semi-literate; he merely indicates that Shakespeare did not attend University, where he would have gained more Latin and Greek instruction. The next mention of Shakespeare comes in 1592 by a University wit named Robert Greene when Shakespeare apparently was already a rising actor and playwright for the London stage. Greene, no longer a successful playwright, tried to warn other University wits about Shakespeare. He wrote: Wife and children When Shakespeare became an adult, the historical records documenting his existence began to increase. In November 1582, at the age of 18, he married 26year-old Anne Hathaway from the nearby village of Shottery. The disparity in their ages, coupled with the fact that they baptized their first daughter, Susanna, only six months later in May 1583, has caused a great deal of modern speculation about the nature of their relationship. However, sixteenth-century conceptions of marriage differed slightly from our modern notions. Though all marriages needed to be performed before a member of the clergy, many of Shakespeare’s contemporaries believed that a couple could establish a relationship through a premarital contract by exchanging vows in front of witnesses. This contract removed the social stigma of pregnancy before marriage. (Shakespeare’s plays contain instances of marriage prompted by pregnancy, and Measure for Measure includes this kind of premarital contract.) Two years later, in February 1585, Shakespeare baptized his twins Hamnet and Judith. Hamnet would die at the age of 11 when Shakespeare was primarily living away from his family in London. For there is an upstart crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his “Tiger’s heart wrapped in a player’s hide” supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank verse as the best of you, and, being an absolute Johannes Factotum, is in his own conceit the only Shake-scene in a country. This statement comes at a point in time when men without a university education, like Shakespeare, were starting to compete as dramatists with the University wits. As many critics have pointed out, Greene’s statement recalls a line from 3 Henry VI, which reads, “O tiger’s heart wrapped in a woman’s hide!” (I.4.137). Greene’s remark does not indicate that Shakespeare was generally disliked. On the contrary, another University wit, Thomas Nashe, wrote of the great theatrical success of Henry VI, and Henry Chettle, Greene’s publisher, later printed a flattering apology to Shakespeare. What Greene’s statement does show us is that Shakespeare’s reputation for poetry had reached enough of a prominence to provoke the envy of a failing competitor. 4 CliffsComplete Twelfth Night In the following year, 1593, the government closed London’s theatres due to an outbreak of the bubonic plague. Publication history suggests that during this closure, Shakespeare may have written his two narrative poems, Venus and Adonis, published in 1593, and The Rape of Lucrece, published in 1594. These are the only two works that Shakespeare seems to have helped into print; each carries a dedication by Shakespeare to Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton. A ground plan of London after the fire of 1666, drawn by Marcus Willemsz Doornik. Guildhall Library, London/AKG, Berlin/SuperStock Stage success When the theatres reopened in 1594, Shakespeare joined the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, an acting company. Though uncertain about the history of his early dramatic works, scholars believe that by this point he had written The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew, the Henry VI trilogy, and Titus Androni...
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