notes - HST 121- 9/1 Early Greece -The movement of ideas...

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HST 121- 9/1 Early Greece -The movement of ideas and technologies into “Greece”: Minoan Crete and Mycenae. -Geography as a limiting and delineating force. -What influences shaped “Greek Civilization? -Generally what shapes a civilization? Cultural Bridges - Civilizations that serve as bridges for knowledge. (Ancient Near East to Ancient Greece) Minoan Crete c. 2700-1400 BCE - Mythology: King Minos and the Minotaur - Archaeology: Bronze Age Civilization, Shipbuilders, commercial centers, grain and vine agriculture, wheat and wine. - Palace of Knossos: Double Axe (Symbol of royalty known as a labrys) - Language & Writing: Linear A-a symbolic alphabet related to Phoenicians and later Greeks, but written in a Semitic language. - Linear B- Same alphabet as Linear A but is spoken language of Ancient Greece. - Religion & Art: No military inscribed within vases paintings etc, however similar themes tie over from Mesopotamia including child rearing, fertility etc. - Thera: (mountain) violent eruption as a result of an eastern earthquake. Mycenae - Located on Greek Peninsula a “bridge of later Greeks” - Tribal-based organization. - Fortified hilltops as cities, which led to acropolis. Included a vast array of military defenses, art and architecture. - Military Culture: Thrust Swords initially then shifted to slashing swords. Slashing swords can be used on horseback, which shift to horse-based combat including an aristocratically military organization. - Cross- Culture Influences: Bulls etc from Crete. Greek Dark Ages: 1250-850/750 BCE - Circa 1250 Mycenaean Civilization ends with invasion by northern people from Balkans, resulting in little written word - Homer 850/750 BCE: The Iliad and the Odyssey, recollected Trojan War Traditional Dates 1194-1184 BCE or probably c.1250 BCE. - One of the most frequently read texts through Middle Ages and Renaissance. - Troy located on Ionian Peninsula across from Aegean Sea from Greece. Pre-Hellenic Greece
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-Greece at beginning of Pre-Hellenic (Archaic) Age -Genos: (Clans) no longer kingdoms. -Geography & Climate: Harbor-based visual navigation by landmarks rather than by the stars. -Government based around cities, which are required for survival. -Moderate based climate (avoid extremes) Simple wardrobe as well as no fuel required for warmth. - Governments can meet in any situation, or any weather conditions. - Direct Democracy, every citizen has a say in government, and the minimum age for holding office is much higher as a result longer life. -City Size: (Polis, poleis) -Sparta: 3,200 sq miles -Ohio: 41,222 sq miles -Ceos: 60 sq miles (4 Polis or independent nations) -Athens (c. 350,000) -Sparta (c. 220,000) -Cincinnati (c.331,000) Plato - Ideal Polis consisted of 5,000 male citizens= 20,000 people. 9/8-The Development of Sparta and Athens
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notes - HST 121- 9/1 Early Greece -The movement of ideas...

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