Maritime Exploration {1}

Maritime Exploration {1} - Maritime Exploration I. Left...

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Maritime Exploration I. Left Overs: A. Andean Civilization The Chavin was the earliest civilization and declined sometime around 100BCE The Moche, another civilization, developed from the old Chavin civilization. They thrived from about 100-700CE. They built extensive irrigation systems from rivers coming out of the mountains. They cultivated Maize, beans, sweet potatoes, and manioc in the lower coastal areas. In higher elevations the cultivated coca (cocaine). The Moche society was highly stratified with wealth and power concentrated in the hands of the priests and military leaders. Because the Moche had no written records all that we yy comes from archeological evidence. Like all other people of the Americas the Moche’s decline isn’t not well understood but it seems to have coincided with natural disasters like earthquake flood or drought. Other people occupied the Andes region the most powerful was the Inca civilization They formed a vast imperial state during the 15 th century They began in the 1100s in the town of Cuzco which was 11000 feet above sea level. Their leaders consolidated political power during the 1430s and began an aggressive expansion leading them to control 2500 miles of land along the Andes range. Map. 173 What made it possible for them to expand was abundant food supplies. They had great understanding about different crops that would grow at different altitudes. They had metal tools, fertilizers, irrigation systems, dams and canals. They also built terraces on steep hill sides and used llamas and alpacas as beasts of burden. 1
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The farmers were mostly peasants who gave portions of their products to the aristocrats. They saved surpluses for famines and had a system called the mit ‘a system. Each person owed compulsory labor services to the Inca state with men doing heavy labor and women making textiles, pottery, and jewelry. With aid of the quipu system, Inca bureaucrats kept track of labor service and tribute owed by local communities. Aylus, are traditional Andean communities who were under the mit’a system and used quipu. Quechua language is the language of the Inca. Their chief ruler was called the Inca. He was considered to be a deity descended from the sun and his senior wife was seen as a link to the moon. He was an absolute all-knowing ruler. His bureaucracy consisted of aristocrats and the Inca allotted land to his subjects who farmed it on his behalf. The Inca’s status as a God king was reflected in his elaborate dress and a special group of women ceaselessly made clothing and jewelry for the Inca and his family since each day they wore new outfits the old ones never to be worn again. The aristocrats wore long ear spools that enlarged the ears so much that the
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Maritime Exploration {1} - Maritime Exploration I. Left...

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