Human Biology

Human Biology - 9/20/11 Chapter 4 Cells: Organization and...

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9/20/11
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9/20/11 Chapter 4 Cells: Organization and Communication
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9/20/11 Cells Cells are the building blocks of life, they are highly organized and dynamic the human body contains trillions of cells and over 200 different types cells differ in both shape and size The study of cells is called cytology
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Click to edit Master subtitle style 9/20/11 Fibroblas ts Erythrocyt es Epithelial cells (d) Cell that fights disease Nerve cell Fat cell Sper m (a) Cells that connect body parts, form linings, or transport gases (c) Cell that stores nutrients (b) Cells that move organs and body parts (e) Cell that gathers information and control body functions (f) Cell of reproduction Skele tal Muscl e cell Smooth muscle cells Macropha ge Figure 3.1
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9/20/11 Cell Theory All cells have similar characteristics Current cell theory holds: all living things are composed of cells all cells arise from preexisting cells through cell division cells contain hereditary material, which they pass to daughter cells during cell division
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9/20/11 Parts of a Cell The cell is a highly organized structure that has three basic parts a barrier called the plasma membrane (in animals) or cell wall (in plants and bacteria) a fluid called cytosol , which supports multiple types of organelles, each with a function vital to the life of the cell a nucleus , most prominent organelle. (The cytosol and other organelles, not including the nucleus, collectively are referred
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9/20/11 Prokaryotic Cells Millions of years ago, cells adapted to their environments Early life forms were prokaryotic, adapting to the extreme environments of early Earth Prokaryotic cells have no internal membrane-bound compartments, usually having only genetic material as organelles Today, they survive as bacteria and archaebacteria
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9/20/11 Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and organelles plant, animal, and fungal cells are eukaryotic they are believed to have evolved from prokaryotic ancestors which took in smaller, energy-producing prokaryotic cells (the organelle, Mitochondria)
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9/20/11 Plant Cells Plant cells have organelles not found in animal cells Central vacuole maintains cell pressure (turgor) Chloroplasts, an organelle that produce energy through photosynthesis Many believe that chloroplasts originated as bacteria that were “adopted” by the plant cell
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9/20/11 The Cell Membrane The cell membrane separates the cell from the extracellular fluid It is composed of two layers of phospholipids, interspersed with proteins, fats, and sugars phospholipids are arranged in a double layer, or bilayer, with the hydrophilic, water-loving heads oriented toward the aqueous environment both inside and outside the cell the hydrophobic, water-fearing, non-polar, lipid portion of the molecules is sandwiched in the center
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9/20/11 The Cell Membrane
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9/20/11 The Glycocalyx The glycoproteins and glycolipids form a layer called the glycocalyx . This glycocalyx layer is unique an defines the cell
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This note was uploaded on 09/20/2011 for the course BSC 2023 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at FIU.

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Human Biology - 9/20/11 Chapter 4 Cells: Organization and...

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