Transue - all notes

Transue - all notes - Dr. Gregg Transue Office: 214 ARC...

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Dr. Gregg Transue Office: 214 ARC 732-445-2594 gtransue@rci.rutgers.edu Computer Work: alca.rutgers.edu/bio102/compwork06.htm Also, use virtual lab bio.rutgers.edu/~gb102/virtuallabs_102.html - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - I. Development A. Stages of Development (humans) i. Fertilization: more than just sperm and egg coming 2g. It covers a variety of processes. 1. Gamete Anatomy Sperm Acrosome: package of digestive enzymes. Hyperbolize digestive proteins. the sperm has 2 come in contact w/the membrane of the egg. Has to go thru the outer layers surrounding the egg b4 it can get 2 the egg. Egg Zona pellucida: what gets ovulated. Non cellular protein layer that surrounds the entire egg.-v Granulosa Cells: the follicle cells immediately surrounding the zona pellucida. Corona radiate: remnants of the granulose cells surrounding the zona pellucida. ********** Starfish Egg human egg -Vitelline envelope -Zona Pellucida -Jelly coat -corona radiate **analogous structures ************* ii. Cleavage iii. Blastula iv. Gastrulation v. Organogenesis 1. Neuralation
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2. Other Systems B. Control of Development Human Echinoderms Frog Chicken All organisms go thru the same stages of development. h/e they will look different @ the end. The reason y we look diff going thru development process has 2 do w/the pressures that we experience growing up. o What problems o all these zygotes (echinoderms, frog, chicken, humans) face? Being preyed upon. Obtaining energy: we don’t obtain it the same way. How we get it differentiates us from the other orgs. Orgs have evolved strategies for obtaining food, which will dictate how we look during embryology. Competition The yolk contains nutrients for the embryo. The mother dictates how much energy to put i/o the embryo. Echinoderms make thousands eggs, so the mom doesn’t put in a lot of energy i/o the embryo, thus there is very little yolk. In the frog, the mom puts an investment of energy to the frog. Frog eggs have a moderate amount of yolk. The embryo has enough energy 2 become a tadpole. The tadpole is capable of feeding itself. In the chicken, there is a lot of yolk in the egg. The mom puts a lot of energy i/o the chicken. In humans, the human egg doesn’t have a lot of yolk. The mom gives energy not thru the egg but thru the placenta. The amt of energy that the egg has is dictated thru the pressures that it experiences predation, competition, etc. The human embryo starts out looking like an echinoderm. ½ way thru the process, we look like a chicken. ii. Species Identification Internal vs external fertilization o External Fertilization All species have a protein on the acrosome bindin . It has 2 match a receptor on the Vitelline Envelope. If a sperm comes 2 an egg, b4 it can fuse the egg cell membrane, the receptors have 2 match w/bindin b4 fertilization can happen. If they
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Transue - all notes - Dr. Gregg Transue Office: 214 ARC...

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