ProgInstABG2 - Section 2-Programmed Instruction We need to...

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Section 2-Programmed Instruction We need to begin this complex topic by reviewing nine critical definitions. Select as many or as few as you wish. Select the word by number, and select 0 when you are finished. 1) pH 2) PaCO2 3) PaO2 4) HCO3 - 5) Acidosis 6) Alkalosis 7) H+ 8) OH- 9) H2CO3 1) pH --the logarithm of the reciprocal of Hydrogen ion concentration in gram molecules per liter of solution. A pH of 7.0 is neutral; above 7.9 alkalinity increases while below 7.0, acidity increases. A pH of 7.4 is considered normal for arterial blood. 2) PaCO2 --the symbol for Carbon Dioxide tension or pressure in arterial blood. A PaCO2 of 40 torr (mm Hg) is considered normal. 3) PaO2 --the symbol for oxygen pressure or tension in arterial blood. a PaO2 of 90-95 torr (mm Hg) is considered normal. 4) HCO3 - the symbol for the Bicarbonate radical. 24 meq/L is considered normal for arterial blood. 5) Acidosis --condition where the pH decreases below 7.35 in arterial blood. 6) Alkalosis --condition where the pH increases above 7.45 in arterial blood. 7) H+- -the symbol for hydrogen ions. An increase in hydrogen ion concentration can cause acidosis. 8) OH - the symbol for Hydroxyl ions. An increase in hydroxyl ions can cause alkalosis. 9) H2CO3 --the chemical symbol for Carbonic Acid. H2CO3 dissociates into H+ and HCO3-. To fully understand this complicated topic, a few basic chemical concepts must be kept in mind. A solution is acidic when the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) is greater than the concentration of hydroxyl ions (OH-). When a solution has a greater concentration of hydroxyl
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ions (OH-) than hydrogen ions (H+), it is alkalotic. The clinical representation of acid/base status is pH, the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration. *The graphic below compares strong and weak acids. Although both containers are filled with 10 acid molecules,the HCl solution has many more free hydrogen ions due to its degree of disociation. HCl is therefore a much stronger acid. Hydrogen ion concentration is the chemical species responsible for acidity, thus pH is an exact expression of the acidity of a solution. A Normal pH is one that is between: 1) 7.05 and 7.25 2) 7 and 8. 3) 7.45 and 7.55 4) 7.35 and 7.45. Correct answer is 4. The terms acidemia and alkalemia are used to describe lower and higher arterial pH's. respectively. The terms Acidosis and alkalosis should be reserved for use with the specific disturbance causing the pH change, for example, a respiratory acidosis or a metabolic alkalosis. A low pH value indicates which of the following? 1) increased levels of hydrogen ions. 2) decreased levels of hydrogen ions. Correct answer is 1 . Low pH values represent increased levels of hydrogen ions (acidemia), while a high pH value with a loss of hydrogen ions represents alkalemia. pH values less than 7.0 and greater than 7.8 are not compatible with life. Acidemia is a pathophysiological condition in which acid/base balance is skewed to the acidic
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2011 for the course PUBLIC HEA 181 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Community College of Philadelphia.

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ProgInstABG2 - Section 2-Programmed Instruction We need to...

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