101 Outline Chap 2 F10

101 Outline Chap 2 F10 - Ancient, Medieval, and Early...

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Ancient, Medieval, and Early Modern History Subject : Near East/Emergence of Greece (Chapter 2) Text pages : 32-67 Readings: URLs : http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/09/14/Falwell.apology/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_mythological_figures Outline of material : “Dark Age”— controversial term Middle East—lasted about a century Greece—lasted over 200 years Neo-Assyrian Empire (900-600 BCE) Warrior culture—militaristic and brutal Military innovation—greater use of infantry Siege towers; battering rams Archers in chariots Brutal treatment of conquered peoples—many removed to Assyria to work on temples Hunting of wild animals to demonstrate bravery and prowess Literacy less important than military skill and technology Women less important due to lack of military skills Even religion to serve military ends— Ishtar— goddess of love and fertility (and war and sex) glorified war—symbol: lion Constant revolts—ended by revolt of Medes (Iranian) and Chaldeans (Semites) Neo-Babylonian Empire (600-539 BCE) Chaldean—from near Persian Gulf Extensive building project Short-lasting empire Great astronomers Believed Gods communicated to men through natural phenomena
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Persian Empire [note: dates 557-500 BCE in text] Cyrus I (r. 557-530 BCE) Empire lasted until 330 BCE, when conquered by Alexander the Great Largest empire geographically until Alexander Expanded empire on basis of military strength, but cultural tolerance Capital: Persepolis Brutal treatment of revolts Satraps— regional governors—decentralized governance Responsible for keeping order, raising troops, sending taxes to central government Darius I (r. 522-586 BCE) Extended empire east and west Royal Road— Sardis to Persepolis—approximately 1700 miles Mounted couriers could cover this distance in seven days Herodotus: "Neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor darkness of night prevents these couriers from completing their designated stages with utmost speed" Persian religion: Zarathustra (Greek: Zoroaster) —prophet—1200 BCE? 1000 BCE? Moral dualism— struggle between good and evil Good: Ahura Mazda Evil: Ahriman Men could choose between good and evil; only those judged good made it to “heaven” Emphasis on ethical behavior and a supreme God Persian Royal Family adopted Zoroastrianism as their religion under Darius, but did not attempt
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101 Outline Chap 2 F10 - Ancient, Medieval, and Early...

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