101 Outline Chap 3 F10

101 Outline Chap 3 F10 - Ancient Medieval and Early Modern...

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Ancient, Medieval, and Early Modern History Subject : Greek Golden Age (Chapter 3) Text pages : 68-101 Readings: 54-57, 62-64 URLs : Outline of material : Golden Age (500-400 BCE) Classical age (500-323 BCE) Culture: drama, literature, architecture Persian Wars Athenian request for Persian alliance against Sparta—507 BCE Required “submission” to Persian king—rejected by Athenians Ionian Revolt—499 BCE Spartans refused help Athens helped, but defeated—revolt crushed 494 BCE Darius— Sent fleet to punish Athens—490 BCE Battle of Marathon—won by Greek hoplites Persians retreated to Asia Themistocles— Athenian leader—urged building of larger navy for defense Xerxes I—r. 486-465 BCE Next invasion of Greece—480 BCE Canal Bridge across Hellespont (pontoon) Hellenic League— 31 poleis agree to unite against Persians Sparta chosen to lead Syracuse refused help; at war with Carthage 480 BCE—Battle of Thermopylae—“the 300” Athenians evacuated city—Athens burned by Persians Naval battle at Salamis— won by Greeks over superior numbers due to tactics and equipment—location did not allow full Persian fleet to participate at once—Greek ships heavier
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Xerxes retreats—479 BCE Greeks start squabbling among themselves Peloponnesian League—led by Sparta, included Corinth Delian League—led by Athens Paid dues based on size of polis Trireme— three banks of oars Increased democracy in Greece as poor earned money and influence as rowers Beginning of Athenian Empire— Supposedly league of alliance led by Athens Became dominated by Athens—decreased democracy in the League Calls to democratize the justice system—as the legislative system already was Pericles—c. 495-429 BCE Dominant politician—led fight to reform the judiciary Radical democracy Radical—“from the roots” Direct participation to all citizens in judiciary Balanced two principles— Participation by large number of male citizens in direct democracy Elective leadership by the elite Participation— Random selection (lottery) of most offices, term limits, pay for the Council of 500 (which prepared agenda) Open investigation and punishment of corruption Equal protection of the law Random selection and pay of jurors
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101 Outline Chap 3 F10 - Ancient Medieval and Early Modern...

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