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101 Outline Prologue-Chap 1 F10

101 Outline Prologue-Chap 1 F10 - Ancient Medieval and...

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Ancient, Medieval, and Early Modern History Subject : Early Western Civilization 4000-1000 BCE (Chapter 1) Text pages : 2-33 URLs : http://avalon.law.yale.edu/ancient/hamframe.asp Code of Hammurabi http://www.phoenician.org/alphabet_phoenician.gif Phoenician Alphabet http://www.lonestaralpha.org/images/greek_alphabet.gif Greek Alphabet http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rosetta_Stone_BW.jpeg Rosetta stone http://www.danshort.com/ie/iecentum.htm Indo-European (centum) http://www.danshort.com/ie/iesatem.htm Indo-European (satem) Outline of material : Prehistory— Anthropology Paleolithic —400,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE Not considered civilization since no political organization Hunter-gatherers Homo sapiens sapiens —spread from Africa about 50,000 BCE to Europe, SW Asia Lifespan = 25-30 years No domestic animals Gender distinction of tasks—gathering by women; hunting by both, but mainly men Egalitarian society early—development of hierarchy later Tools—stone, bone, wood Ability to make fire Beginning of religious beliefs—our knowledge based on cave paintings and small figures Neolithic —10,000 BCE to 4000 BCE New stone age—new use of stone tools Introduction of agriculture, animal husbandry One of three great revolutions— Neolithic Revolution = Agricultural Revolution Industrial (1700s-1800s) Information (now) Agricultural revolution—change from ‘hunters and gatherers’
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Settled sites rather than nomadic Producing surplus food—led to trade, division of labor Breeding, herding of animals Process began in so-called “Fertile Crescent” Towns—cities—centralizing of authority Group decisions eventually transformed to hierarchies Individual homes—privacy and increasing concept of property New occupations—craftsmen and artisans, since not all engaged in getting food Beginnings of working with metal Protection—raising of walls for defense—stone, wood—depending on location Gender inequality increasing— Patriarchy Polytheism Monotheism Mesopotamia— first civilization— Fertile Crescent Sumer—4000 to 3000 BCE Cities, irrigation, religion, hierarchy, writing, metalworking Bronze age— 4000 to 1000 BCE—copper and tin; weapons and tools Irrigation between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers City-states—twelve by 3000 BCE, each with 20K residents or more Central city—surrounded by wall Crowded—some open space for parks Ziggurat— temple with stair step design, up to ten stories high Housing usually one story for poor with two rooms; two stories with multiple rooms for wealthy Foreign trade—barter
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