bionic human

bionic human - 1 From bats and ships to babies and hips...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 From bats and ships to babies and hips Image An artifact that reproduces the likeness of some physical object or a person Taken from: www.artquotes.net & statue-of-liberty.visit-new-york-city.com Two dimensional or three dimensional Paint brush, cameras, mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, human eye or water surfaces Why imaging is so central to modern healthcare?- How long after the formation of first tumor cell before a woman can feel a tumor in her breast? 14 wks (doubling time) X 30 8 years!- How long does it take for malignant lesions in the lung to become detectable? 21 wks (doubling time) X 30 12 years! Quit smoking NOW Quit smoking NOW ! 2 Some terminology Prefix Scientific Notation Example kilo (k) 1,000 = 10 3 kilogram mega (M) 1,000,000 = 10 6 megawatt giga (G) 1,000,000,000 = 10 9 gigabyte milli (m) 1/1,000 = 10-3 milimeter micro () 1/1,000,000 = 10-6 microliter nano (n) 1/1,000,000,000 = 10-9 nanoparticle Characteristics of waves Frequency (f) - number of times a repetitive event occurs in a specified time period- expressed as cycles per second or Hertz (Hz) Wavelength ( ) the distance between adjacent peaks in a series of periodic waves- usually expressed in nanometers (nm) Wave Velocity (material dependent) Waveparticle duality- All electromagnetic radiation exhibit both wave-like and particle-like properties- Electromagnetic radiation travels as a wave- Electromagnetic radiation consists of photons (quanta) that carry energy Electromagnetic spectrum ultrasound radar 3 The Titanic connection IF the Titanic had a radar system, it would have been able to avoid a collision with the iceberg Then DiCaprio-Winslet duo would not be so famous today! Ultrasound Sound waves with frequency of 1-20 MHz (million Hz). Light has different attenuation coefficients in different materials www.productdose.com Contrast accounts for the differences in densities on the image. BeerLambert law (attenuation of radiation through material) I = I 0 e (-x) I intensity I initial intensity attenuation coefficient X material thickness e Euler's number ( 2.72) I X I 4 How does it work? www.med.yale.edu transducer/receiver sound waves The Doppler Effect www.physics.hku.hk Color Doppler Ultrasound (left circumflex coronary artery) ht p:/ www.cardiovascularultrasound.com/content/1/1/16/additional/ X-ray Medical imaging 5 Atoms Basic building blocks Three basic particles Protons positive charge Neutrons no charge Electrons negative charge Protons + Neutrons = Nucleus Electromagnetic radiation Wave containing electric and magnetic components Example: radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays All electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed, c = 3 x 10 8 m/s Properties of electromagnetic radiation Contains stream of photons Moves at the speed of light A major difference between the various types of electromagnetic radiation is the...
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This note was uploaded on 09/21/2011 for the course MOSAIC 0852 taught by Professor Raymondhalnon during the Spring '09 term at Temple.

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bionic human - 1 From bats and ships to babies and hips...

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