Foraging - hunt seals in the tundra during the winter...

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HUNTING, GATHERING, AND FISHING SOCIETIES
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HUNTING HUNTING IS A HIGH RISK / LOW RETURN ACTIVITY
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GATHERING GATHERING IS A LOW RISK / HIGH RETURN ACTIVITY
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CHARACTERISTICS OF BANDS Small groups of 25-50 individuals Generalized reciprocity Ephemeral leadership Females usually do the gathering Men usually do the hunting Egalitarian, but achieved status is possible through gender, age, and accomplishments .
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BAND SIZE MACROBANDS : Band size is large (25- 50 individuals) usually because the resource base has expanded. MICROBANDS : Band size is SMALL (such as 1-3 nuclear families) usually because the resource base is limited.
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BAND SIZE (an exception to the rule) The Netsilik (People of the Seal) Inuit (Eskimos) used to migrate N-S between the tundra and the taiga . The Netsilik used macrobands to
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Unformatted text preview: hunt seals in the tundra during the winter because of the need for large numbers to watch each seal breathing hole. GENERALIZED RECIPROCITY • No stipulated time limit on the exchange • High degree of trust and mutual support • Calculation is avoided in terms of ranking the gift vis a vis others • In band societies because maintaining social egalitarianism is the goal, gifts are often accompanied by statements minimizing the gift’s importance. THE !KUNG • Reciprocity ( hxaro ) is the basis of their economy and much of their social life (Lee, 1993). • By weight, vegetable foods collected by the women represented 20-25% of their diet. • The Dobe !Kung spend only 15 hours a week acquiring food....
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