PRIMATES - The Primate Order The Primate Order Biological...

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Unformatted text preview: The Primate Order The Primate Order Biological Anthropology Diane C. Freedman Primate Taxonomy Primate Taxonomy ORDER Suborder Infraorder Primate Strepsirhini Lemuiformes lemurs, lorises, (Prosimians) indriids Haplorhini Tarsii (Anthropoids) Platyrrhini Catarrhini Superfamily Ceboid (New World) Cercopithecoid (Old World) Hominoid Taxonomy Hominoid Taxonomy Superfamily Family Genus Hominoid Hylobatid Pongid gibbon Pongo Gorilla Pan Homo Hominid Physical Characteristics of Physical Characteristics of Primate Order Primate Hands Primate Hands a. Prehensile (grasping) hands b. power grip ­ fingers close in unison against the palm c. Precision grip ­ thumbs can be opposed to the other finger independently. d. Nails instead of claws The Baboon’s Hand The fingerprint The fingerprint pattern can be see on this baboon’s hand. Napier Primate Vision­­the dominant Primate Vision­­the dominant sense. • a. Eyes are oriented towards the front of the head and the eye itself is modified to permit "three­dimensional" vision. • b. Ability to distinguish a wide range in the visible spectrum. Ring tailed lemur Ring tailed lemur Madagascar These prosimians have wet noses associated with a good sense of smell, as well as good vision. Anthropoids have dry noses. Primate Brains Primate Brains a. Large area of the brain is devoted to reception, interpretation, and integration of visual sensory input. b. the brain is particularly well developed at birth, and learning commences immediately c. Large brain relative to body size. Primate Reproductive strategy a. Long gestation period. b. offspring born physically well­developed. c. Small number of offspring. Usual pattern is one live birth at a time. • d. Long period of sub­adulthood. The rate at which primates grow peaks just prior its birth. • e. No specific breeding season. • f. Long life span. • • • Primate Mobility Primate Mobility • a. collar bone and shoulder modifications that permit mobile arm movements. • b. The gorilla and chimpanzee both practice a distinctive form of locomotion called knuckle­walking. • c. Brachiation­ hand over hand locomotion under a branch (gibbons) Quadrapedal locomotion Quadrapedal locomotion Drill Spider monkey Spider monkey • These South American monkeys move quadrupedally, can brachiate, and have a prehensile tail. Prehensile tail of new world monkey Prehensile tail of new world monkey has grooves like fingerprints for tighter grip Chimpanzee Chimpanzee Chimps are knuckle­ walkers, but can also walk bipedally for short distances. Bipedal Bonobo Bipedal Bonobo Members of this group are confidant bipedal walkers especially when carrying food, tools, or infants, as this female demonstrates. Primate Behavioral Primate Behavioral Characteristics The ability to make and use tools is present among chimpanzees and is passed through learning to their offspring. Chimp “fishing” for termites • Chimps and gorillas have a strong mother­ infant bond. A gorilla mother A gorilla mother nurtures her infant. An important method of learning among infants An important method of learning among infants and juveniles is play. Juveniles who are friends share Juveniles who are friends share food Grooming serves to solidify relationships Grooming serves to solidify relationships among males and ease intragroup tensions. Terrestrial baboons move in troops in a preset Terrestrial baboons move in troops in a preset order. Dominant males protect females with infants in Dominant males protect females with infants in center; juveniles and other adults surround them Position of a chimpanzee in a dominance hierarchy is affected by physical strength and size, rank of the chimpanzee's mother, motivation, and intelligence. This aggressive 10 year old became the leader of his group. • Chimps, like baboons, have a strong dominance\submission pattern associated with terrestrial defense. • But, while common chimps fight aggressively, Bonobo chimps settle disputes with sex. • Chimps, like baboons, have a strong dominance\submission pattern associated with terrestrial defense. • But, while common chimps fight aggressively, Bonobo chimps settle disputes with sex. Bonobos Bonobos Study Questions for Unit on Study Questions for Unit on Primate Behavior • 1. What kinds of tool use have been observed among chimpanzees in the wild? • 2. Do nonhuman primates in the wild engage in hunting? • 3. What practical function does play serve in primate society? • 4. Do any nonhuman primates engage in violence against their own kind? • 5. How do primates communicate with each other in the wild? •6. Compare and contrast the social behavior of chimpanzees and bonobos. •7. What physical features of the primates are linked to arborealism? •8. Is the difference between humans and other primates primarily one of degree or one of kind? That is, just how unique is Homo sapiens ? Are you impressed with similarities or differences? ...
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