Lecture_16_regression_F07

# Lecture_16_regression_F07 - 1 E7 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER...

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E7 L15 1 E7: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER E7: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING FOR SCIENTISTS AND PROGRAMMING FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS ENGINEERS Lecture Outline 1. Least squares solution when n = # equations >> m = # of unknowns 1. Regression and curve fit Copyright 2007, Horowitz, Packard. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

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E7 L15 2 Linear equations in matrix form Linear equations in matrix form Consider n LINEAR equations and m unknowns. A   matrix ( n x m ) p   vector ( m x 1) y   vector ( n x 1) unknown
E7 L15 3 Linear equations in matrix form Linear equations in matrix form = n-by- m m -by-1 n-by-1 = n-by- m m -by-1 n-by-1 A p y A p y

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E7 L15 4 Linear equations in matrix form when Linear equations in matrix form when n n >> >> m m = n-by- m m -by-1 n-by-1 A p y n n : number of equations is much larger than m m : number of unknowns
E7 L15 5 The backslash operator: The backslash operator: p = A\y Given a set of n linear equations with m unknowns   Computes p that solves : >> p = A\y solves the least squares problem.

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E7 L15 6 The backslash operator: The backslash operator: p = A\y What happens if the least squares (LS) solution is not unique and n n         m m ? >> p = A\y computes a basic LS solution, which has at most r nonzero components (When n n >> >> m m , this is normally not the case…) # of columns of A # of LI columns of A when r r  <   <  m m
E7 L15 7 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 Find the linear function: that minimizes the sum of error squares: Linear Regression: Curve-fitting with minimum error Linear Regression: Curve-fitting with minimum error Given n  (x,y) data pairs: (x 1 ,y 1 ), (x 2 ,y 2 ), … ,  (x n ,y n ) y x

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E7 L15 8 Linear Regression: Computing the LS solution Linear Regression: Computing the LS solution Given n  (x,y) data pairs: (x 1 ,y 1 ), (x 2 ,y 2 ), … ,  (x n ,y n ), For a given set of parameters: p 1 and p 2   , we can compute the errors e i ’s  as follows
E7 L15 9 Linear Regression: Computing the LS solution Linear Regression: Computing the LS solution Given n  (x,y) data pairs: (x 1 ,y 1 ), (x 2 ,y 2 ), … ,  (x n ,y n ), In vector/matrix form: p   vector ( 2 x 1) A   matrix ( n x 2 ) y   vector ( n x 1) e   vector ( n x 1)

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