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Law cH - http/www.peo.gov.au/students/cl/multi.html e vao...

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http://www.peo.gov.au/students/cl/multi.html e vao xem qua trang nay 1 ti nhe ^^ The Commonwealth of Australia was established on 1 January 1901. The Constitution of the new Commonwealth had been drawn up by various contemporaries of colonial parliamentarians during the 1890s. It was endorsed by the people at referendums and embodied in a Act of the British Parliament in 1900, which authorised Queen Victoria to proclaim the establishment at federation. Prior to 1901, the system of government in Australia had evolved progressively, from the time when the country had been proclaimed as a British possession in 1788, to the point where it comprised a collection of six self-governing British colonies, effectively under the control of the United Kingdom. Upon Federation, the Constitution made provision for a national level of government referred to as the Commonwealth, with legislative power exercised through a federal Parliament comprised of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The former six colonies became six states. Each retained its own Parliament, able to exercise legislative powers, except as limited by the new federal Constitution. A range of government functions and services is also delivered at the local or community level. Local government as such is not recognised specifically in the Constitution and is established under legislation of the individual states. The functions and funding of local government are discussed further below. The structure of government The Constitution provides for the powers of the Commonwealth to be exercised at three levels: power is conferred on the Parliament executive power, to assent to and administer laws, and to carry out the business of government, is conferred on the Governor-General, Ministers of State, departments, other government agencies, and the defence forces judicial power is vested in the High Court of Australia and other courts established by the Parliament. Each of these levels is discussed further below. Legislature The national system of government in Australia draws both from the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as having its own unique characteristics.
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It is a parliamentary system, where the majority in the House of Representatives determines the executive arm, and where Ministers are Members of Parliament. It is a bicameral system with an elected upper house, the Senate, which is elected under a proportional representational voting system based upon equal numbers of representatives from each state, plus a smaller number of representatives of the mainland territories. The House of Representatives consists of members elected in single-member electorates by compulsory voting of all those aged 18 and over, with a unique form of preferential voting system (as distinct from first-past-the-post voting).
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