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BIOL 142 Chapter 21 Study Guide for TEST 1

BIOL 142 Chapter 21 Study Guide for TEST 1 - breeds of dogs...

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BIOL 142: Study Guide for TEST # 1 Chapter 21 – Evidence for Evolution This chapter review some of the major lines of evidence for evolution: Natural Selection - Darwin’s Finches – Darwin collected 14 different species of finches from the Galapagos Islands – variation in beak size and shape correlated with food preferences – it has been shown that this variation is genetically inherited and that frequencies of the traits in populations change in response to changes in environmental conditions - Changing Traits in Changing Environments (peppered moths) : coloration in moths is determined by different alleles for the same gene and is assumed to influence predation by visual predators such as birds (i.e. the better camouflaged moths survive more often) – the frequency of darker moths increased as pollution spread through forests and later decreased as pollution decreased. Artificial Selection - Lab experiments (example: fruit flies selected to have more bristles) - Agriculture and Domesticated Animals (examples – changes in corn and differences between
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Unformatted text preview: breeds of dogs) Fossil Record-the fossil record (timeline of evolution with ages of different species)-documentation of evolutionary transition through intermediate species (example: Archeopteryx , etc.) Comparative Anatomy-Homologous structures – similar structures derived from a common ancestor with different functions because of natural selection (example – forearm of vertebrates)-Development of embryos (‘ontogeny recapitulated phylogeny’)-‘imperfect design’ of structures such as the vertebrate eye-Vestigial structures (example- ear wiggling muscles in humans) Biogeography -Example of convergent evolution between marsupials and placentals-analogous structures – similar function but different structures – found in nonrelated species that are subject to similar selective pressures-colonization of islands by species from the mainland provides real-life ‘experiments’ in natural selection...
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