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BIOL 142 Chapter 28 Study Guide for TEST 2

BIOL 142 Chapter 28 Study Guide for TEST 2 - BIOL 142 Study...

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BIOL 142: Study Guide for TEST # 2 Chapter 28 – Prokaryotes Prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) are the oldest forms of life: The first cells were prokaryotes and appeared about 3.5 BYA (we know from microfossils , isotopic analysis to determine when carbon fixation began, and lipids created by cyanobacteria = biomarkers ) Prokaryotes are very abundant (there are a lot of them) and are ubiquitous (they are everywhere) Prokaryotes are the simplest forms of life: - they are all unicellular - they are very small (about 10X smaller than eukaryotic cells) - they have a single, circular, double-stranded molecule of DNA in the nucleoid + plasmids (= extrachromosomal fragments of DNA) - they do have ribosomes but do not have any membrane-bound organelles - cell membranes are different in bacteria and archaea (archeaa have branched lipids and can form monolayers) - cell walls of bacteria have peptidoglycan (cell walls of archaea do not) – particular structure
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