BIOL 142-101: Study Guide for TEST # 3 Chapter 31 – Fungi Defining characteristics : Unicellular or multicellular with different cell types; important decomposers , pathogens, and symbionts (a few are even predators/carnivores); absorptive heterotrophs that obtain nutrients via external digestion (some can break down the cellulose and lignin in wood); cell walls with chitin ; some have dikaryotic stage (n + n); reproduce sexually and asexually; exhibit nuclear mitosis (i.e. mitosis occurs in the nucleus, not in the cytoplasm as in other organisms); structure: hyphae = continuous or branched filaments filled with cytoplasm and nuclei (cells may or may not be divided by septa ); a mass of hyphae is called the mycelium Classification (6 main groups) Chytrids – aquatic fungi with motile zoospores (responsible for worldwide declines in amphibians) Zygomycetes – include common bread molds, no septa in hyphae except during reproduction; zygote = only stage with diploid nucleus Glomeromycetes
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