BIOL 142: Study Guide for TEST # 4 Chapter 35 – Vertebrates (bilaterally symmetrical, deuterostomes , coleomates ) Phylum Chordata – ALL have: 1) single, hollow, dorsal nerve cord ; 2) notochord (becomes the vertebral column in vertebrates); 3) pharyngeal slits ; and 4) postanal tail Subphylum Urochordata = tunicates (tadpole-like larvae exhibit the characteristics of chordates) Subphylum Cephalochordata = lancelets (= closest relative of vertebrates) Subphylum Vertebrata –have: vertebral column , head with well-developed sensory organs and brain enclosed within skull, endoskeleton, and internal organs. Summary of the Evolutionary History of the Vertebrates- first evolved as jawless fishes about 545 MYA ( Agnatha are the only living jawless fishes)- early fish were replaced by fish with jaws (i.e. sharks and bony fishes) about 300-400 MYA- amphibians evolved and invaded land ( Tiktaalik = fossil intermediate)- first reptiles evolved about 300 MYA- different lineages of reptiles gave rise to mammals (from the
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