03) 27 Aug 2010 - David L Nelson and Michael M Cox...

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LEHNINGER PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMISTRY Fifth Edition David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox © 2008 W. H. Freeman and Company CHAPTER 2 Water “I believe that as the methods of structural chemistry are further applied to physiological problems, it will be found that the significance of the hydrogen bond for physiology is greater than that of any other single structural feature.” —Linus Pauling, The Nature of the Chemical Bond, 1939
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H H H H H O H O O C O O Methane = reduced carbon Carbon dioxide = oxidized carbon Oxygen = oxidized oxygen Water = reduced oxygen Metabolism extracts energy, shift electrons from carbon (low electronegativity) to oxygen (high electronegativity)
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Covalent bonds – share electrons equally i.e. same electronegativity ( = 0 – 0.5), e.g. C – H Ionic bonds – No sharing, electrostatic attraction, large electronegativity difference ( > 2) Polar covalent – unequal sharing i.e. moderate electronegativity differences ( ∆ = 0.5 -1.729 Electronegativity values C = 2.55 O = 3.05 N = 3.45 H = 2.1
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Covalent Bond lengths and differences in electronegativity C – C 1.5 Ǻ = 0 C – N 1.5 Ǻ = 0.5 C – O 1.4 Ǻ = 0.9 C – H 1.1 Ǻ = 0.4 O – H 1.0 Ǻ = 1.4 N – H 1.0 Ǻ = 1.0 Fluorine – one bond and three lone pairs Oxygen – two bonds and two lone pairs Nitrogen – three bonds and one lone pair Carbon – four bonds
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Polar covalent bonds have partial charge.
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