04) 30 Aug 2010

04) 30 Aug 2010 - Osmolarity following the second law,...

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Osmolarity – following the second law, water moves from areas of high concentration to low concentration Colligative properties – dependent on the number of solute particles not the properties of the solute Concentration of water is lowered by the number of particles present, not the type of particles present Isotonic – equal osmolarity inside and outside cell Hypotonic – lower osmolarity outside cell Hypertonic – higher osmolarity outside cell
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In an “open” system, osmolarity equilibrates the number of solute particles In a “closed” system, osmolarity creates a pressure Semipermeable membranes allow water to equilibrate but not solutes The height of the column is governed by gravity
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Osmolarity ( Π ) can be calculated by adapting the van’t Hoff equation G = -RT lnK Define Π = RT ∑(i n c n ) i = ionization factor, glucose i = 1, NaCl i = 2 c = molar concentration Colligative property – summation of solute particle reported in osmoles Blood is measured to be 300 mOsm/L Normal saline = 0.91% (w/v) NaCl 0.91g in 100ml water = 9.1 g/L MW = 58.5 g/mol then normal saline is 156 mM i = 2, then 312 mOsm/L For 0.156 mM glucose since i = 1, then 0.156 mOsm/L
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Osmolarity is a summation of solute particles One liter of Lactated Ringer's Solution contains: 130 mEq of sodium ion = 130 mmol/L. 109 mEq of chloride ion = 109 mmol/L. 28 mEq of lactate = 28 mmol/L. 4 mEq of potassium ion = 4 mmol/L. 3 mEq of calcium ion = 1.5 mmol/L .
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This note was uploaded on 09/18/2011 for the course CHEM 3510 taught by Professor Mueser during the Spring '10 term at Toledo.

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04) 30 Aug 2010 - Osmolarity following the second law,...

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