17 04 Oct 2010

17 04 Oct 2010 - Normally, digestive enzymes secreted by...

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Normally, digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas do not become active until they reach the small intestine. But when the pancreas is inflamed, the enzymes inside it attack and damage the tissues that produce them. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/pancreatitis/
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Hexokinase (glucokinase) transfers the gamma phosphate from Mg-ATP to the 6 – OH of glucose HK + ATP – very slow hydrolysis of ATP HK + glucose + ATP – rapid transfer HK + xylose + ATP – rapid hydrolysis of ATP, no transfer to xylose Glucose and xylose both cause a conformational change in HK Hexokinase
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Open Closed
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Enolase catalyzes the dehydration of activated glycerate Active site metals coordinate the carboxyl group K and D provide the acid – base moieties Enolase
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Lysozyme is an antibacterial agent that cleaves glycosidic bonds in the bacterial cell wall Lysozyme
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Lysozyme has an S N 2 reaction mechanism The substrate bridges two acidic groups In the first step, Glu35 acts like a general acid In the second step, it acts like a general base
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Irreversible Inhibitors as Antibiotics Bacterial cell walls are composed of crosslinked peptidoglycans (peptides and sugars) Penicillins form covalent bonds to the active site of transpeptidase, the enzyme responsible for forming crosslinks Human Immunodeficiency virus has a small RNA genome The HIV genome encodes two polypeptides, gag-pol and env The pol portion of the gag-pol polypeptide contains three proteins, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and a protease The gag portion contains the envelope proteins and env contains gp160 (gp120 and gp41) used in cell invasion HIV protease cleaves the polypeptides into individual active proteins Protease inhibitors are drugs with very high affinity for the HIV protease active site
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17 04 Oct 2010 - Normally, digestive enzymes secreted by...

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