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20 15 Oct 2010

20 15 Oct 2010 - Four types of polysaccharides(glycans...

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Unformatted text preview: Four types of polysaccharides (glycans) Homopolysaccharides – only one type of monosaccharide Heteropolysaccharides – two or more types Linear or Branched Most homopolysaccharides are glucose polymers necessary for food storage with rapid access Polymers are necessary to reduce the osmolarity in the cell Starch in plants have α (1→4) linkages in linear polymers of amylose and branched polymers of α (1→4) and α (1→6) linkages of amylopectin with branching every ~25 residues Glycogen is amylopectin except branching ~10 residues apart #1 Cellulose are linear homopolysaccharides of glucose with β (1→4) linkages up to ~15K residues Glucose for fuel has α (1→4) so normal glycosidic enzymes cannot act on β (1→4) Cellulase, β (1→4) glycohydrolase, is an enzyme found in wood fungi and some microorganisms #2 Chitin, the exoskeleton of invertebrates, is a homopolysaccharide of modified glucose with β (1→4) linkages The 2 –OH is replaced with an amine = glucosamine The amine is protected by acetylation Like protein backbone rotation, the φ and ψ angles of glycosidic bonds adopt orientations that minimize potential energy Potential energy minima for two bonds do not dictate the final...
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20 15 Oct 2010 - Four types of polysaccharides(glycans...

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