28 08 Nov 2010

28 08 Nov 2010 - David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox...

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LEHNINGER PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMISTRY Fifth Edition David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox © 2008 W. H. Freeman and Company CHAPTER 10 Lipids
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Lipids Fats and oils = long term energy storage Phospholipids and sterols = major component of biological membranes Also involved in posttranslational modification (membrane anchoring) cofactors in enzyme reactions electron transport vision (vitamin A) signaling (hormones)
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8 Major categories of lipids 1. Fatty acids = long chain hydrocarbons with a terminal COOH 2. Glycerolipids = esters of glycerol and fatty acids 3. Glycerophospholipids = glycerolipids with phosphate groups 4. Sphingolipids = esters of fatty acids and sphingosine 5. Sterol lipids = lipids with four fused rings derived from isoprene 6. Prenol lipids = other lipids derived from isoprene 7. Saccharolipids = lipids couple to carbohydrate 8. Polyketides = lipids with multiple carbonyl groups – diverse bioactivity
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Fatty acids Hydrocarbons 4 to 36 carbons (12 – 24 most common) in length – most are linear – with a carboxyl end group and limited solubility in water Saturated fatty acids = no double bonds Unsaturated fatty acids = one or more double bonds The α carbon is carbon #2, ϖ is the last carbon regardless of length
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Double bonds Most naturally occurring double bonds are cis Positions of the double bonds are relative to carbon 1 Use to denote double bonds with the carbon number superscripted 9 means a double bond between C-9 and C-10, if not specifically noted assume the bond is cis Double bonds are not conjugated – usually separated by a methylene group Most common positions for double bonds are 9, 12, and 15 Polyunsaturated fatty acids = multiple double bonds For polyunsaturated fatty acids – important to note the distance from the end ( ϖ ) The ϖ -3 PUFA α -linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3( 9,12,15 )) is an essential dietary lipid
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Fatty acids have common names, scientific names, and short hand notation Common fatty acids are even numbered – built using acetate
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28 08 Nov 2010 - David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox...

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