29 10 Nov 2010

29 10 Nov 2010 - five general types of membrane lipids...

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Unformatted text preview: five general types of membrane lipids glycerophospholipids , in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids joined to glycerol; galactolipids and sulfolipids , which also contain two fatty acids esterified to glycerol, but lack the characteristic phosphate of phospholipids; archaeal tetraether lipids , in which two very long alkyl chains are ether-linked to glycerol at both ends; sphingolipids , in which a single fatty acid is joined to a fatty amine, sphingosine; sterols , compounds characterized by a rigid system of four fused hydrocarbon rings. Storage lipids = triacylglycerides Structural lipids = Phospholipids and glycolipids Phospholipids = phosphate and fatty acids coupled to glycerol or sphingosine Glycolipids = saccharides coupled to fatty acids or to fatty acids and sphingosine Extremophiles (Archaea) have ether linkages instead of esters 1.) Glycerophospholipids phosphate anhydride attached to a primary alcohol (1 or 3) of glycerol (not to the center) L-glycerol 3-phosphate, D-glycerol 1-phosphate, or sn glycerol 3-phosphate In glycerolphospholipids, the phosphate is attached to carbon 3 with naming based on glyceraldehyde Glycerophospholipids position 1 and 2 are esterified to fatty acids The phosphate at position 3 is further substituted with polar alcohol head groups including amine alcohols, amino acids, and polyalcohols (including sugars) The unsubstituted form (X = H) is called phosphatidic acid Lecithin = phosphatidyl choline is a major membrane phospholipid derived from phosphatidic acid and the neurotransmitter, choline (acetylcholine) Vertebrate heart tissue is uniquely enriched in ether lipids;...
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29 10 Nov 2010 - five general types of membrane lipids...

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