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Unformatted text preview: Martin Luther- an Augustinian monk and professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg, challenged the authority of the people and attacked several doctrines of the Catholic Church. To him, the Church had become corrupt, constituting priests who manipulated popular superstition to enrich themselves. He attacked the sale of indulgences citing that they were fraud; argued that purgatory had no foundation in the bible and Christians could be saved by faith alone. Stemmed the branch of Protestantism during the Reformation. Jane Lumley- first Tudor woman to translate a play; composed an English version of the Euripides' Iphigenia at Aulis (c.1550) Witch Craze:-1590s, Scotland went on witch craze-thousands of women wildly accused and little cahnce to defend themselves-tortured into confessions (what kind? look below ^.^)-James the first claimed they-were involved in 1590 conspiracy to kill him with storm when he was getting home with new bride on sea-they were always plotting against him Maleficium an evil deed (what kind of deeds were witches charged with?)-infant cannibalism-night flying-sexual intercourse with the devil-orgiastic "witches Sabbaths" dance in plays-all plays in the period, including Shakespeare's, apparently ended in dance -brush off theatrical gore and change expression from woe to pleasure-players were later warned to suppress these entertainments or go to jail- Most english towns had stocks and whipping post. - Drunks, fraudulent merchants, adulterers, and quarrelers could be placed in carts or mounted backward on asses and paraded through the streets for crowd to jeer and throw refuse at. - Women accused of being scolds could be publicly muzzled by an iron device called a "brank" or tied to a cucking stool and dunked into the river. Convicted criminals could have their ears cut off, their noses slit, their foreheads branded. - Public beheadings (generally reserved for the elite, for example when Queen Elizabeth, February 1587, signed the death warrant for her cousins (Mary) beheading (21) ) and hangings were common. In the worst cases, felons were sentenced to be "hanged by the neck, and being alive cut down, and your privy members to be cut off, and your bowels to be taken out of your belly and there burned, you being alive." (35) - This was found on page 35 under the heading Alternative Entertainments. July 1588 - pg 21 When The Invincible Armada, a Spanish war-ship, reached English waters, one of the largest, most famous, naval battles in European history was fought. During this battle, in what was seen as an act of God, the Spanish fleet was dispersed and many Spanish soldiers died. The war was between Catholic Spain, backed by Queen Elizabeths former brother in law, Philip II, and Protestant England....
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