2 - Example approaching an issue Overview and Methods...

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Overview and Methods © ! Theories and their roles ! Experiments ! Approaches to cognition ! Methods Example: approaching an issue ! Why do people forget? ! Decay vs. Interference ! Both predict people forget with time ! How would one tell which is right? ! Find a situation with different predictions: ! Do people forget as much when asleep? ! Decay - Yes; Interference -- No ! Does forgetting depend on similarity of information? ! Decay - No; Interference -- Yes Theory ! Organized body of general explanatory principles about a phenomenon ! Role ! Organize current results - provide coherence, explanation ! Predict new results -- guide research Interplay between theories and data THEORY induction deduction DATA Points about theories ! All theories are tentative ! New data, new measurements ! Theories in Cognition ! Cannot usually “see” what is going on ! Theories involve inferences - can be abstract Points about theories ! Making correct prediction is not the same as being true ! Alternative explanations ! Can often find some differences Observation Theory
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Ross’s Observation ! Students who sit in the front tend to get higher grades than other students. ! Assume it is true.
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2 - Example approaching an issue Overview and Methods...

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