chapter13_Part1

chapter13_Part1 - Nuclear Magnetic Nuclear Resonance...

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13- 13-1 Nuclear Magnetic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Resonance Chapter 13 Chapter 13
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13- 13-2 Molecular Spectroscopy Molecular Spectroscopy Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy spectroscopy : : a spectroscopic technique that gives us information about the number and types of atoms in a molecule, for example, about the number and types of hydrogen atoms using 1 H-NMR spectroscopy carbon atoms using 13 C-NMR spectroscopy phosphorus atoms using 31 P-NMR spectroscopy
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13- 13-3 Nuclear Spin States Nuclear Spin States An electron has a spin quantum number of 1/2 with allowed values of +1/2 and -1/2 this spinning charge creates an associated magnetic field in effect, an electron behaves as if it is a tiny bar magnet and has what is called a magnetic moment The same effect holds for certain atomic nuclei any atomic nucleus that has an odd mass number, an odd atomic number, or both also has a spin and a resulting nuclear magnetic moment the allowed nuclear spin states are determined by the spin quantum number, I , of the nucleus
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13- 13-4 Nuclear Spin States Nuclear Spin States a nucleus with spin quantum number I has 2 I + 1 + 1 spin states; if I = 1/2, there are two allowed spin states Table 13.1 gives the spin quantum numbers and allowed nuclear spin states for selected isotopes of elements common to organic compounds 1 H 2 H 12 C 13 C 14 N 16 O 31 P 32 S Element Nuclear spin quantum  number ( I  ) Number of spin states 1/2 1 0 0 0 1/2 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1/2 2 1
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13- 13-5 Nuclear Spins in B Nuclear Spins in B 0 within a collection of 1 H and 13 C atoms, nuclear spins are completely random in orientation when placed in a strong external magnetic field of strength B 0 , however, interaction between nuclear spins and the applied magnetic field is quantized, with the result that only certain orientations of nuclear magnetic moments are allowed
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13- 13-6 Nuclear Spins in B Nuclear Spins in B 0 for 1 H and 13 C, only two orientations are allowed
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