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chapter1 - 1-1-1Organic Organic...

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Unformatted text preview: 1-1-1Organic Organic ChemistryChemistry1-1-2Review of Review of Molecular Molecular StructureStructureChapter 1Chapter 11-1-3Organic ChemistryOrganic ChemistryThe study of the compounds of carbonOver 10 million compounds have been identifiedabout 1000 new ones are identified each day!C is a small atom it forms single, double, and triple bondsit is intermediate in electronegativity (2.5)it forms strong bonds with C, H, O, N, and some metals1-1-4Schematic View of an AtomSchematic View of an Atoma small dense nucleus, diameter 10-14 - 10-15m, which contains positively charged protons and most of the mass of the atoman extranuclear space, diameter 10-10 m, which contains negatively charged electrons1-1-5Electron Configuration of AtomsElectron Configuration of AtomsElectrons are confined to regions of space called principle energy levels (shells)each shell can hold 2n2electrons (n = 1,2,3,4......)ShellNumber of Electrons ShellCan HoldRelative Energiesof Electrons in These Shells3218 8 24321higherlower1-1-6Electron Configuration of AtomsElectron Configuration of AtomsShells are divided into subshells called orbitals, which are designated by the letters s, p, d, f,........s(one per shell) p(set of three per shell 2 and higher) d(set of five per shell 3 and higher) .....ShellO rbitals Contained in That Shell3211s2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz3s, 3px, 3py, 3pz, plus five 3d orbitals1-1-7Electron Configuration of AtomsElectron Configuration of AtomsAufbau Principle:Aufbau Principle:orbitals fill in order of increasing energy from lowest energy to highest energyPauli Exclusion Principle:Pauli Exclusion Principle:only two electrons can occupy an orbital and their spins must be pairedHunds Rule:Hunds Rule:when orbitals of equal energy are available but there are not enough electrons to fill all of them, one electron is added to each orbital before a second electron is added to any one of them1-1-8Electron Configuration of AtomsElectron Configuration of AtomsThe pairing of electron spins1-1-9Electron Configuration of AtomsElectron Configuration of AtomsTable 1.3 The Ground-State Electron Configuration of Elements 1-181-1-1010Lewis Dot StructuresLewis Dot StructuresGilbert N. LewisValence shell:Valence shell:the outermost occupied electron shell of an atomValence electrons:Valence electrons:electrons in the valence shell of an atom; these electrons are used to form chemical bonds and in chemical reactionsLewis dot structure:Lewis dot structure:the symbol of an element represents the nucleus and all inner shell electronsdots represent valence electrons1-1-1111Lewis Dot StructuresLewis Dot StructuresLewis Dot Structures for Elements 1-18NOBHLiBeNaHeClFSNeArCSiAlP1A2A3A4A5A6A7A8AMg::::::....
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chapter1 - 1-1-1Organic Organic...

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