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chapter1 - 1-1-1Organic Organic...

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Unformatted text preview: 1-1-1Organic Organic ChemistryChemistry1-1-2Review of Review of Molecular Molecular StructureStructureChapter 1Chapter 11-1-3Organic ChemistryOrganic Chemistry◆The study of the compounds of carbon◆Over 10 million compounds have been identified•about 1000 new ones are identified each day!◆C is a small atom •it forms single, double, and triple bonds•it is intermediate in electronegativity (2.5)•it forms strong bonds with C, H, O, N, and some metals1-1-4Schematic View of an AtomSchematic View of an Atom•a small dense nucleus, diameter 10-14 - 10-15m, which contains positively charged protons and most of the mass of the atom•an extranuclear space, diameter 10-10 m, which contains negatively charged electrons1-1-5Electron Configuration of AtomsElectron Configuration of Atoms◆Electrons are confined to regions of space called principle energy levels (shells)•each shell can hold 2n2electrons (n = 1,2,3,4......)ShellNumber of Electrons ShellCan HoldRelative Energiesof Electrons in These Shells3218 8 24321higherlower1-1-6Electron Configuration of AtomsElectron Configuration of Atoms◆Shells are divided into subshells called orbitals, which are designated by the letters s, p, d, f,........•s(one per shell) •p(set of three per shell 2 and higher) •d(set of five per shell 3 and higher) .....ShellO rbitals Contained in That Shell3211s2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz3s, 3px, 3py, 3pz, plus five 3d orbitals1-1-7Electron Configuration of AtomsElectron Configuration of Atoms◆Aufbau Principle:Aufbau Principle:•orbitals fill in order of increasing energy from lowest energy to highest energy◆Pauli Exclusion Principle:Pauli Exclusion Principle:•only two electrons can occupy an orbital and their spins must be paired◆Hund’s Rule:Hund’s Rule:•when orbitals of equal energy are available but there are not enough electrons to fill all of them, one electron is added to each orbital before a second electron is added to any one of them1-1-8Electron Configuration of AtomsElectron Configuration of Atoms◆The pairing of electron spins1-1-9Electron Configuration of AtomsElectron Configuration of Atoms◆Table 1.3 The Ground-State Electron Configuration of Elements 1-181-1-1010Lewis Dot StructuresLewis Dot Structures◆Gilbert N. Lewis◆Valence shell:Valence shell:•the outermost occupied electron shell of an atom◆Valence electrons:Valence electrons:•electrons in the valence shell of an atom; these electrons are used to form chemical bonds and in chemical reactions◆Lewis dot structure:Lewis dot structure:•the symbol of an element represents the nucleus and all inner shell electrons•dots represent valence electrons1-1-1111Lewis Dot StructuresLewis Dot StructuresLewis Dot Structures for Elements 1-18NOBHLiBeNaHeClFSNeArCSiAlP1A2A3A4A5A6A7A8AMg::::::....
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This note was uploaded on 09/19/2011 for the course CHM 261 taught by Professor Wenthold during the Spring '11 term at Purdue.

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chapter1 - 1-1-1Organic Organic...

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