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chapter3

chapter3 - 3-3- 3Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: 3-3-1AlkanesAlkanesandandCycloalkanesCycloalkanesChapter 3Chapter 33-3-2StructureStructure◆Hydrocarbon:Hydrocarbon:a compound composed only of carbon and hydrogen◆Saturated hydrocarbon:Saturated hydrocarbon:a hydrocarbon containing only single bonds◆Alkane:Alkane:a saturated hydrocarbon whose carbons are arranged in an open chain◆Aliphatic hydrocarbon:Aliphatic hydrocarbon:another name for an alkane3-3-3HydrocarbonsHydrocarbonsH-C C-HH-C-C-HHHHHHCCHHHHydrocarbonsAlkanes(Chapter 2)Alkenes(Chapters 5-6)Alkynes(Chapter 7)Arenes(Chapter 21-22)Only carbon-carbon single bondsOne or more carbon-carbondouble bondsOne or morecarbon-carbontriple bondsOne or morebenzenelikeringsClassExampleCarbon-carbonbondingNameEthaneEtheneAcetyleneBenzeneSaturatedUnsaturated3-3-4StructureStructure◆Shape•tetrahedral about carbon•all bond angles are approximately 109.5°3-3-5Drawing AlkanesDrawing Alkanes◆Line-angle formulas•an abbreviated way to draw structural formulas•each vertex and line ending represents a carbon•“Homologues” differ by the number of methylene units• Methylene = CH2CH3CH2CH2CH3CH3CH2CH3CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3PentaneButanePropanePentanePropaneStructuralformulaLine-angle formulaBall-and-stickmodelCH3CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH33-3-6Constitutional IsomerismConstitutional Isomerism◆Constitutional isomers:Constitutional isomers:compounds with the same molecular formula but a different connectivity of their atoms•example: C4H10CH3CH2CH2CH3Butane(bp -0.5°C)CH3CH3CHCH32-Methylpropane(bp -11.6°C)3-3-7Constitutional IsomerismConstitutional Isomerism•do these formulas represent constitutional isomers?•find the longest carbon chain•number each chain from the end nearest the first branch •compare chain lengths as well the identity and location of branchesCH3CHCH2CHCH3CH3CH3CH3CH2CHCHCH3CH3CH3and(each is C7H16)CH3CH2CHCHCH3CH3CH3CH3CHCH2CHCH3CH3CH3445431and511223352543213-3-8Constitutional IsomerismConstitutional IsomerismWorld populationWorld populationis aboutis about7,000,000,0007,000,000,0004,111,846,7634,3477531Constitutional IsomersMolecularFormulaCH4C5H1 2C1 0H2 2C1 5H3 2C3 0H6 236,797,588C2 5H5 2Note molecular formulas follow a pattern: CnH2n+2(applies to all isomers (by definition))3-3-9Nomenclature - IUPACNomenclature - IUPAC◆Suffix -aneanespecifies an alkaneane◆Prefix tells the number of carbon atomsundec-dodec-tetradec-pentadec-hexadec-heptadec-nonadec-eicos-tridec-11121314151617octadec-181920Prefixmeth-eth-prop-but-pent-hex-oct-non-dec-1234567hept-8910CarbonsCarbonsPrefix3-3-1010Nomenclature - IUPACNomenclature - IUPAC◆Parent name:Parent name:the longest carbon chain◆Substituent:Substituent:a group bonded to the parent chain •alkyl groupalkyl group: a substituent derived by removal of a hydrogen from an alkane; given the symbol R-AlkaneAlkyl groupCH4NameNameMethaneCH3-Methyl groupCH3CH3EthaneCH3CH2-Ethyl group3-3-1111Nomenclature - IUPACNomenclature - IUPAC1.The name of a saturated hydrocarbon with an 1....
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