chapter3 -...

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Unformatted text preview: 3-3-1AlkanesAlkanesandandCycloalkanesCycloalkanesChapter 3Chapter 33-3-2StructureStructureHydrocarbon:Hydrocarbon:a compound composed only of carbon and hydrogenSaturated hydrocarbon:Saturated hydrocarbon:a hydrocarbon containing only single bondsAlkane:Alkane:a saturated hydrocarbon whose carbons are arranged in an open chainAliphatic hydrocarbon:Aliphatic hydrocarbon:another name for an alkane3-3-3HydrocarbonsHydrocarbonsH-C C-HH-C-C-HHHHHHCCHHHHydrocarbonsAlkanes(Chapter 2)Alkenes(Chapters 5-6)Alkynes(Chapter 7)Arenes(Chapter 21-22)Only carbon-carbon single bondsOne or more carbon-carbondouble bondsOne or morecarbon-carbontriple bondsOne or morebenzenelikeringsClassExampleCarbon-carbonbondingNameEthaneEtheneAcetyleneBenzeneSaturatedUnsaturated3-3-4StructureStructureShapetetrahedral about carbonall bond angles are approximately 109.53-3-5Drawing AlkanesDrawing AlkanesLine-angle formulasan abbreviated way to draw structural formulaseach vertex and line ending represents a carbonHomologues differ by the number of methylene units Methylene = CH2CH3CH2CH2CH3CH3CH2CH3CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3PentaneButanePropanePentanePropaneStructuralformulaLine-angle formulaBall-and-stickmodelCH3CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH33-3-6Constitutional IsomerismConstitutional IsomerismConstitutional isomers:Constitutional isomers:compounds with the same molecular formula but a different connectivity of their atomsexample: C4H10CH3CH2CH2CH3Butane(bp -0.5C)CH3CH3CHCH32-Methylpropane(bp -11.6C)3-3-7Constitutional IsomerismConstitutional Isomerismdo these formulas represent constitutional isomers?find the longest carbon chainnumber each chain from the end nearest the first branch compare chain lengths as well the identity and location of branchesCH3CHCH2CHCH3CH3CH3CH3CH2CHCHCH3CH3CH3and(each is C7H16)CH3CH2CHCHCH3CH3CH3CH3CHCH2CHCH3CH3CH3445431and511223352543213-3-8Constitutional IsomerismConstitutional IsomerismWorld populationWorld populationis aboutis about7,000,000,0007,000,000,0004,111,846,7634,3477531Constitutional IsomersMolecularFormulaCH4C5H1 2C1 0H2 2C1 5H3 2C3 0H6 236,797,588C2 5H5 2Note molecular formulas follow a pattern: CnH2n+2(applies to all isomers (by definition))3-3-9Nomenclature - IUPACNomenclature - IUPACSuffix -aneanespecifies an alkaneanePrefix tells the number of carbon atomsundec-dodec-tetradec-pentadec-hexadec-heptadec-nonadec-eicos-tridec-11121314151617octadec-181920Prefixmeth-eth-prop-but-pent-hex-oct-non-dec-1234567hept-8910CarbonsCarbonsPrefix3-3-1010Nomenclature - IUPACNomenclature - IUPACParent name:Parent name:the longest carbon chainSubstituent:Substituent:a group bonded to the parent chain alkyl groupalkyl group: a substituent derived by removal of a hydrogen from an alkane; given the symbol R-AlkaneAlkyl groupCH4NameNameMethaneCH3-Methyl groupCH3CH3EthaneCH3CH2-Ethyl group3-3-1111Nomenclature - IUPACNomenclature - IUPAC1.The name of a saturated hydrocarbon with an 1....
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This note was uploaded on 09/19/2011 for the course CHM 261 taught by Professor Wenthold during the Spring '11 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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chapter3 -...

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