1.2_periodic_table-FIGS

1.2_periodic_table-FIGS - its central positively charged...

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“The spectra of the elements are arranged on horizontal lines spaced at equal distances. The order chosen for the elements is the order of the atomic weights, except in the cases of Ar, Co and Te, where this clashes with the order of the chemical properties. Vacant lines have been left for an element between Mo and Ru, and element between Nd and Sm, and an element between W and Os, none of which are yet known….Now if either the elements were not characterized by these integers, or any mistake had been made in the order chosen or in the number of places left for unknown elements, these regularities (the straight lines) would at once disappear. We can therefore conclude from the evidence of the x-ray spectra alone, without using any theory of atomic structure, that these integers are really characteristic of the elements….Now Rutherford has proved that the most important constituent of an atom is
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Unformatted text preview: its central positively charged nucleus, and van den Broek has put forward the view that the charge carried by this nucleus is in all cases an integral multiple of the charge on the hydrogen nucleus. There is every reason to suppose that the integer which controls the x-ray spectrum is the same as the number of electrical units in the nucleus, and these experiments therefore give the strongest possible support to the hypothesis of van den Broek.-100-50 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 Atomic Number Electron Affinity He (1s 2 ) N (2s 2 2p 3 ) F (2s 2 2p 5 ) Be (2s 2 ) Linus Pauling (1901 1994) Nobel Prize for Chemistry, 1954; Nobel Peace Prize, 1962 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 Atomic Number Electronegativity...
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1.2_periodic_table-FIGS - its central positively charged...

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