Chapter 13 Study Guide

Chapter 13 Study Guide - Chapter 13 Study Guide Bond energy...

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Chapter 13 Study Guide Bond energy: the energy required to break a given chemical bond Ionic bonding: the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions Ionic compound (binary): a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form a cation and an anion Couloumb’s law: E = 2.31 x 10 2 nd ( Q 1 Q 2 / r ), where E is the energy of interaction between a pair of ions, expressed in joules; r is the distance between the ion center in nm; and Q 1 and Q 2 are the numerical ion charges Bonding occurs if the energy of the aggregate is lower than that of the separated atoms Bond length: the distance between the nuclei of the two atoms connected by a bond; the distance where the total energy of a diatomic molecule is minimal 1) The energy terms involved are the potential energy that results from the attractions and repulsions among the charged particles and the kinetic energy caused by the motions of the elements 2) The zero reference point for energy is defined for the atoms at infinite separation 3) At very short distances the energy rises steeply because of the great importance of the internuclear repulsive forces at these distances 4) The bond length is the distance at which the system has minimum energy, and the bond energy corresponds to the depth of the “well” at this distance The atoms in H 2 (and all other molecules) actually vibrate back and forth around the equilibrium clear distance Covalent bonding: electrons are shared by nuclei Polar covalent bond: a covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts them more strongly than the other Electronegativity: a tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself The factor of 0.102 is a conversion factor between kJ and eV Dipole moment: a property of a molecule whose charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge Dipole moment = (mu) = QR 1 debye (D) = 3.336 x 10 -30 C m Atoms in stable compounds usually have a noble gas configuration
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In the solid state of an ionic compound the ions are relatively close together, and many ions are simultaneously interacting In the gas phase of an ionic substance the ions would be relatively far apart and would not contain large groups of ions Isoelectronic ions: ions containing the same number of electrons For isoelectronic ions, size generally decreases as Z increases Ion size generally increases down a group Lattice energy: the energy change occurring when separated gaseous ions are packed together to form
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This note was uploaded on 09/19/2011 for the course CHEM 43L taught by Professor Therien during the Fall '09 term at Duke.

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Chapter 13 Study Guide - Chapter 13 Study Guide Bond energy...

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