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Chapter 21 Study Guide

Chapter 21 Study Guide - Chapter 21 Study Guide Biomolecule...

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Chapter 21 Study Guide Biomolecule: molecules that maintain and reproduce life Organic chemistry: the study of carbon-containing compounds (typically chains of carbon atoms) and their properties Hydrocarbon: compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen Saturated: hydrocarbons whose carbon—carbon bonds are all single bonds Unsaturated: hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon multiple bonds Alkane: a saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula C n H 2 n +2 Normal (Straight-chain, Unbranched) hydrocarbons: alkanes in which the carbon atoms form long “strings” or chains Structural isomerism: isomerism in which the isomers contain the same atoms but one or more bonds differ Rules for Naming Alkanes 1) The names of the alkanes beyond butane are obtained by adding the suffix –ane to the Greek root for the number of carbon atoms 2) When alkane groups appear as substituents, they are named by dropping the –ane and adding –yl . 3) The positions of substituent groups are specified by numbering the longest chain of carbon atoms sequentially, starting at the end closest to the branching. 4) The location and name of each substituent are followed by the root alkane name. The substituents are listed in alphabetical order, and the prefixes di- , tri- , and so on are used to indicated multiple identical substituents. Combustion reaction: the vigorous and exothermic reaction that takes place between certain substances, particularly organic compounds, and oxygen Substitution reaction: a reaction in which an atom, usually a halogen, replaces a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon The hv above the arrow represents ultraviolet light. Dehydrogenation reaction: a reaction in which two hydrogen atoms are removed from adjacent carbons of a saturated hydrocarbon, giving an unsaturated hydrocarbon Cyclic alkane: ring-shaped carbons Alkene: an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing a carbon-carbon bond. The general formula is C n H 2 n
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Chapter 21 Study Guide Rules for Naming Alkenes 1) The root hydrocarbon name ends in –ene rather than –ane . 2) In alkenes containing more than three carbon atoms, the location of the double bond is indicated by the lowest-numbered carbon atom involved in the bond cis isomerism: identical substituents are on the same side of a double bond trans isomerism: identical substituents are on opposite sites of a double bond Alkyne: an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing a triple carbon-carbon bond. The general
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