09 - 2 O General Relationship The stronger the acid the...

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11/3/09 Chapter 7 Bronsted-Lowry (1923) Acid: substance that acts as a proton donor Base: substance that acts as a proton acceptor Neutralization reaction: Transfer of a proton from an acid to a base We can say: i)The stronger the acid, the more readily it donates a proton ii)The stronger the base, the more readily it accepts a proton for the general acid HA: HA + H 2 O  H 3 O + + A - Reaction of an acid with a base produces a new acid and a new base We can learn something about acid/base strengths from equilibrum constants for neutralization reactions Because most acids/base are diluted with respect to [H 2 O], [H 2 O] is constant K=[ H 3 O + ][A - ] = K a (acid dissociation constant) [HA] Example: HCl + H 2 O  H 3 O + + Cl - K a = 10 7 A strong acid yields a weak conjugate base A weak acid has a conjugate base that is stronger (more basic) than H
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Unformatted text preview: 2 O General Relationship: The stronger the acid, the weaker the conjugate base The stronger the base, the weaker the conjugate acid Solvents in which acids/bases are dissolved greatly impact acid/base properties Example: H 2 O and NH 3 undergo a reaction called autoionization Autoionization: A process in which proton is transferred from one molecule to another of the same type The product of [H + ][OH-] must = 1 x 10-14 but this does not mean [H + ] = [OH-] 3 cases: Neutral solution: [H + ] = [OH-] = 1 x 10-7 Acidic solution: [H + ] > [OH-] Basic solution: [H + ] < [OH-] 11/3/09 pH = log base 10 scale one pH unit change corresponds to a 10-fold concentration change...
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