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Chapter 7 Study Guide

Chapter 7 Study Guide - Chapter 7 Study Guide Arrhenius...

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Chapter 7 Study Guide Arrhenius concept: a concept postulating that acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution, whereas bases roduce hydroxide ions Bronsted-Lowry definition (model): a model proposing that an acid is a proton donor, and a base is a proton acceptor Bronsted-Lowry acid: a proton donor Bronsted-Lowry base: a proton acceptor Hydronium ion: the H 3 O + ion; a hydrated proton Conjugate base: what remains of an acid molecule after a proton is lost Conjugate acid: the species formed when a proton is added to a base Conjugate acid-base pair: two species related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single proton Acid dissociation constant ( K a ): the equilibrium constant for a reaction in which a proton is removed from an acid by H 2 O to form the conjugate base and H 3 O + Strong acid: an acid that completely dissociates a H + ion and conjugate base Equilibrium lies far to the right. A strong acid yields a weak conjugate base Weak acid: an acid that dissociates only slightly in aqeuous solution Equilibrium yields far to the left. A weak acid yields a strong conjugate base . Perchloric acid can explode if handled improperly Diprotic acid: an acid that has two acidic protons Oxyacid: an acid in which the acidic proton in attached to an oxygen atom Organic acid: an acid with a carbon-atom backbone; often contains the carboxyl group Carboxyl group: the —COOH group in an organic acid Monoprotic acid: an acid with one acidic proton Amphoteric substance: a substance that can behave as either an acid or a base Autoionization: the transfer of a proton from one molecule to another of the same substance
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Ion-product constant ( K w ): the equilibrium constant for the autoionization of water; K w = [H + ][OH - ]. At 25ºC, K w equals 1.0 x 10 -14 K w = [H + ][OH - ] = 1.0 x 10 -14- pH = -log[H + ] The pH scale is a compact way to represent solution acidity. It involves base-10 logs, not natural logs (ln). The number of decimal places in the log is equal to the number of significant figures in the original number pH scale: a log scale based on 10 and equal to –log[H + ]; a convenient way to represent solution acidity pOH = -log[OH - ] p K = -log K The pH changes by 1 for every power of 10 change in [H + ] The pH decreases as [H + ] increases General Strategies for Solving Acid-Base Problems 1) Think Chemistry . Focus on the solution components and their reactions. It will almost always be possible to choose one reaction that is most important.
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Chapter 7 Study Guide - Chapter 7 Study Guide Arrhenius...

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