CHM204Ch27notesSP10

CHM204Ch27notesSP10 - Chapter27:Carbohydrates I....

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Chapter 27: Carbohydrates troduction I. Introduction Carbohydrates are 1 of the 3 principle classes of food (others are fats and proteins) Majority of all matter in plants: sugars, starches, cellulose ord carbohydrate means “hydrate of carbon” because most, but not all, have Word carbohydrate means hydrate of carbon because most, but not all, have the formula C n (H 2 O) m Glucose (blood sugar) C 6 H 12 O 6 can be written C 6 (H 2 O) 6 Sucrose (table sugar) C 2 H 2 O 1 can be written C 2 (H O) 1 12 22 11 12 2 11 A good description of carbohydrates is aldehydes and ketones with many OH groups, or substances that form these when hydrolyzed
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II. Classification Depends on how many simpler carbohydrates (simple sugars) it contains onosaccharides simplest carbohydrates possess the generic formula (CH2O)x Monosaccharides : simplest carbohydrates possess the generic formula (CH2O)x Can’t be hydrolyzed into simpler carbohydrate units isaccharides 2 onosaccharides mbined Disaccharides : 2 monosaccharides combined Oligosaccharides : 3 6 monosaccharides combined Polysaccharides : more than 6 monosaccharides, could be 100’s – 1000’s A. Classifying Monosaccharides : 1. Length of the carbon chain suffix –ose indicates molecules is carbohydrate 3C’s triose C’s trose 4C s tetrose 5C’s pentose 6C’s hexose C’s eptose 7C s heptose
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2. Aldoses and Ketoses : Aldoses: contain an aldehyde group etoses: contain a tone Ketoses: contain a ketone *Use aldo or keto as prefix to name from part 1 CHO dotriose CHOH CH 2 OH aldotriose ketotetrose d L h i d 3. D and L Monosaccharides : Glyceraldehyde is the basis of all other aldoses contains 1 stereocenter resulting in 2 enantiomers
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This note was uploaded on 09/19/2011 for the course CHM 204 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Marshall.

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CHM204Ch27notesSP10 - Chapter27:Carbohydrates I....

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