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ASM 104 Study Guide

ASM 104 Study Guide - ASM 104 Study Guide Exam 1 Week 1 Be...

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ASM 104 Study Guide: Exam 1 Week 1 - Be able to characterize the mindset of pre-Darwin Europe regarding nature. What two ideas prevented the acceptance of evolution? Essentialism: belief that things have a set of unchanging characteristics that make them what they are and that the task of science and philosophy is their discovery; ignored variation; static. o There is an essence to figures; there is something that make them what they are, one side, two sides, and infinite sides. There are certain things that make a human a human and a dog a dog, etc, etc. Teleological: Making reference to purpose; goal-oriented; purpose oriented. General view that things have a purpose or goal. o They thought the Earth was young ( only about 6000 years old) o Species were the production of special instantaneous creation; life existed in a natural order; species seen as fixed and unchanging - What is the Great Chain of Being? Scala Natura; Concept detailing a strict, hierarchical structure of all matter and life. o Ex: (Imagine this as a ladder in descending order…) "God, Angels, Man, Rocks(Earth) at the bottom" - We discussed a series of individuals who helped break down the old view of the world. Each had made a specific contribution to changing the way people viewed the world. Be able to associate each individual with their contribution. Linnaeus: Classification; hierarchical classification scheme (Kingdom -> class -> order ->genus -> species (genus->species =binomial nomenclature) TAXONOMY Paley:” Natural Theology" Living systems, like the eye, are much more Complex and also serve a purpose; must have been designed. o Ex: A watch is Complex and was designed for a Purpose. Buffon and E. Darwin: Both are early supporters of species evolution. No mechanism Proposed. Lamarck: Lamarck developed an early theory of evolution involving the inheritance of acquired characteristics. o Individuals develop new features during their lifetime by striving toward some goal. These acquired characteristics are passed on to offspring. Ex: Giraffe stretches neck by reaching for food. Lyell: AGE OF EARTH IS YOUN G, Uniformitarianism- Current geologic process, occurring at the same rates observed today, in the same manner account for all of earths geological features ( put another way: natural process happening today are the same as natural processes that happened in the past)
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Malthus: The founder of demography; theorized that population size was limited by food supply . Interpersonal competition. o An insufficient food supply causes some people to fall into poverty, while others are able to acquire the resources they need to thrive. Cuvier: One of his most important contributions to science was the concept of extinction. Catastrophism- the idea that at intervals of earth's history some species have been destroyed by
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ASM 104 Study Guide - ASM 104 Study Guide Exam 1 Week 1 Be...

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