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TEAS EXAM REVIEWSCIENCE PORTIONHuman Anatomy & Physiology- 68%Life & Physical Sciences-17%Scientific Reasoning- 15%Lesson 1- Human Anatomy and Physiology 1.1 Components of a Cell FunctionOrganelleDescriptionProtein SynthesisribosomesFree floating in cytoplasm or associated with ER. Composed of ribosomal RNA, protein, & translate messenger RNA into cellular proteins. Protein Translationrough ERSite of translation for membrane-bound of secreted proteins. Site of protein folding & modification.Protein modification& modificationgolgi apparatusSort/package protein. Cells “post office”. Proteins undergo posttranslational modification. Ribosome assemblynucleolusTranscribes ribosomal RNA & combines ribosomal proteins to create ribosomal subunits. Waste breakdownlysosomeBreak down waste, defense against pathogens & apoptosis. Energy productionmitochondriaPowerhouse. Produce ATP through aerobic respiration. Double membrane, small circular genome, own ribosomes. Cell organizationcentrosomeOrganization. Centrioles assemble the mitotic spindle during cell division. Detoxification &lipid synthesissmooth ERProduces lipids, phospholipids, steroids. Detoxifies metabolic by-products as well as alcohol/drugs. Storage site for calcium. locomotionciliaEnable movement. Increase cell surface area to maximize absorption.
1.2 Tissues Tissue typeDescriptionEpithelialCovering skin. Produce secretions. Dependent on diffusion from capillaries for food and oxygen. ConnectiveFound throughout body. Bone, cartilage, adipose (fat), blood vessel.MuscularProvide movement. Skeletal, cardiac, smooth.NervousStructure for brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Send electrical impulses through body. 1.3 Anatomical Planes and Terminology PlaneDescriptionCoronalRuns vertically. Front/backSagittalRuns vertically. Left/rightTransverse Runs horizontal. Top/bottom. Also called axial TermDefinitionExample SuperiorTop half of transverse HeadInferiorBottom half of transverseFootAnterior/ventralFront of coronalClaviclePosterior/dorsalBack of coronalShoulder bladeMedialMidline of sagittalThumbLateralAway from midline of sagittalPinkyProximalToward originProximal tubule Bowman’s capsuleDistal Away from originDistal tubule Bowman’s capsule
Lesson 2- Skeletal System System Function: movement, protection, metabolism, creates blood cells, framework for muscles. Bone: hard calcified material that makes up skeletal system.Stores calcium, phosphate, and lipids.Synthesize blood and immune cells.Two divisions of systemoAxial skeleton: skull, vertebrae, rib cage, hyoid bone, general scaffold of body.oAppendicular skeleton: limb bone, scapula, clavicle, pelvis, enables movement. 4 types of boneoLong bone: support weight of body and facilitate movement.